National Council on Disability Document Archive

Guidance for minority/disability success

Posted by: Jamal Mazrui
Date Mailed: Friday, August 1st 1997 12:12 AM

                    ENHANCING OUTCOMES AMONG 
         AFRICAN AMERICANS AND LATINOS WITH DISABILITIES 
                 THROUGH EMPOWERMENT AND SUPPORT 

                            GUIDELINES


                     Faye Z. Belgrave, Ph.D.
                     Maria Cecilia Zea, Ph.D.
                       Sylvia Walker, Ed.D.
                       Sonia R. Banks, M.A.
                     S. Lisbeth Jarama, Ph.D.
                   Tiffany G. Townsend, M.Phil.
                    Kimberley A. Turner, M.ed.

                               1997


                           Contributors

George Washington University

     Faye Z. Belgrave
     Maria Cecilia Zea
     S. Lisbeth Jarama
     Sonia R. Banks
     Tiffany G. Townsend
     Tirsis Quezada

Howard University

     Sylvia Walker
     Carl Douthitt

Rehabilitation Services Administration

     Ruth Royal-Hill, Administrator
     Liliana Arias
     Donald Briggs
     William Byrd
     Brenda Cartwright
     Stephanie G. Coleman
     Joan Cousins
     Cherri Eitel
     John Folan
     Shushila Kapur
     Marlene Jones Kinney
     Margaret Lake-Young
     Alex Lugo
     Milagros V. McGuire
     Marianne Mesmer
     Donald Nunley
     Arturo Rodriguez
     Rose M. Salazar
     Hector Sotomayor
     Cynthia A. Burley
     Denise Thomas
     Thomas Waters
     Gloria Whitfield
     Joan Wills
     Mattie Zachery


                         Acknowledgements

     This project was  supported by a grant from the National
Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research to George
Washington University, Washington, D.C. (Faye Z. Belgrave, Ph.D.,
Principal Investigator).  The opinions expressed herein are those
of the authors and should not be attributed to the U.S. Department
of Education.  The authors would like to thank the many individuals
who made this project possible: Staff of the D.C. Rehabilitation
Services Administration (RSA), Staff of the Rehabilitation Project
at George Washington University, and Staff at the Howard University
Research and Training Center.  Thanks to Deniece Hopkins and Rene
Proctor who provided invaluable editorial assistance.  Finally, but
most importantly, appreciation and gratitude is extended to all
consumers who participated in our program.













                       Table of Contents
                                
Contributors.....................................................
...........................        i
Acknowledgements.................................................
.......................       ii

Table of
Contents.........................................................
.................         iv

Chapter
One..............................................................
..................         3 Introduction and Background

Chapter
Two..............................................................
..................         8 Recruitment and Retention

Chapter
Three............................................................
..................         11 Group Process

Chapter
Four.............................................................
..................         16 Implementing a Social Support
Intervention 
     Session I:     Purpose of the Program                        
   17                (What is this program all about?)
     Session II:    Identify Your Social Support Network          
        21                (Who is there to help me?)
     Session III:   Types of Social Support                       
   26                (How do I distinguish different types of
support?)      Session IV:    Learning to be Supportive           
                  33                (How do I give support?)
     Session V:     Empowerment Versus Dependence                 
   39                (I can versus I don't think I can.)
     Session VI:    Cultural Aspects                              
   46                (What values do I have?)
     Session VII:   Summary and Feedback                          
   50                (What did I learn?)

Chapter
Five.............................................................
...................        53 Implementing a Psychosocial
Competence Intervention
     Session I:     Purpose of the Program                        
   54                (What is this program all about?)
     Session II:    Being a "doer"                               58 
              (I take responsibility for my life.)
     Session III:   Empowerment                                  64 
              (I can take charge of my life.)
     Session IV:    Goal Setting                                  
   71                (What are my life goals?)
     Session V:     Action Plan                                   
   77                (How will I get what I want in life?)
     Session VI:    Cultural Aspects                              
   83                (What role does my culture play?)
     Session VII:   Summary and Feedback                          
   90                (What did I learn?)

Chapter
Six..............................................................
....................  91 Summary and Conclusions

Appendix
A................................................................
..................   94

Appendix
B................................................................
..................        95

References.......................................................
............................       98








 Enhancing Outcomes Among African-Americans and Latinos with
Disabilities through Empowerment and Support                      
          
                          Chapter One
                  Introduction  and Background
     In 1992, The National Institute on Disability and
Rehabilitation Research (NIDRR) awarded a grant to The George
Washington University.  This grant titled, "Enhancing Adjustment to
Disability and Employment Success among African Americans and
Latinos," was a collaborative effort between The George Washington
University, Howard University, and Rehabilitation Services
Administration (RSA) in Washington, D.C.  The overall goal of the
project was to develop, implement, and evaluate a program to
improve vocational, psychological, and functional outcomes among
African Americans and Latinos with disabilities.  Programs that
promoted social support and psychosocial competence were used to
achieve this goal.  These guidelines describe the result of these
efforts.  It is hoped that these guidelines will be useful to
others interested in developing programs for African Americans and
Latinos with disabilities.
     The project was implemented in recognition of the need to
develop approaches to improve the quality of life for African
Americans and Latinos with disabilities.  One in seven working age
non-institutionalized African Americans have a disability and one
in twelve Latinos have a disability (Bowe, 1990).  Although there
is a strong desire to work, only a very small percentage of African
Americans and Latinos are employed (Belgrave, Walker & Asbury,
1993).  Housing, medical, and rehabilitation services are
additional concerns which limit the ability of these individuals to
participate productively in society.  Additionally, the standard of
living among African Americans and Latinos with disabilities may be
lowered because of limited income and education.  This project was
designed to address some of these issues.
     This manual provides guidelines for replicating our efforts
with African Americans and Latinos with disabilities in other
communities.  While individual and situational factors will differ
from person-to-person and from organization-to-organization, some
of the strategies used may be modified for individual situations. 
The background is presented in this first chapter.  We introduce
our approach and the kinds of changes in behavior and attitudes
that were desired.  The importance of cultural factors is
addressed.  Chapter two provides the reader with an overview of our
recruitment and retention efforts. Under recruitment, we discuss
initial efforts to involve agencies, groups and consumers, and ways
to recruit and retain participants.  Since intervention activities
occur within a group, understanding how groups function is
important. This is discussed in chapter three.  A discussion of the
training of group facilitators is covered.  Additionally, chapter
three discusses aspects of group process and structure.   Chapters
four and five are the most comprehensive chapters and provide
detailed guidelines on how to carry out the social support (Chapter
four) and psychosocial competence (Chapter five) sessions.  The
objectives, activities, and resources for the seven sessions are
discussed. Participants' reactions and recommendations are provided
for each session.    Background
     The intervention was designed to improve outcomes by
increasing social support and psychosocial competence.  Prior
research has demonstrated the benefits of social support and
psychosocial competence for African Americans and Latinos.  For
example, we have found that consumers who have social support are
more likely to be employed, have better mental health, and fewer
health-related problems.  It was expected that increases in social
support and psychosocial competence would lead to improvements in
several areas. Social Support
     What is social support?  Social support is information that
one is loved, cared for, and part of a network of shared support
and concern (Cobb, 1976).  Social support may be provided and
experienced in several forms.  Support may be emotional, i.e.,
feeling that one is loved, cared for and a valuable person. 
Support may be material, i.e., monetary  assistance, baby-sitting,
transportation, and food.  In addition, support may be
informational, i.e., a job lead or where to find a particular
resource.
     Support may come from informal or formal sources.  Formal
support may come from agencies such as social services,
rehabilitation services, and professionals (rehabilitation
counselors, occupational therapists, etc).   However, much of our
support comes from informal sources such as family, friends,
neighbors, and church members.  The benefits of social support with
African Americans and other ethnic minorities with disabilities
have been shown in earlier research.  Belgrave, Walker, and Asbury
(1995) found that higher levels of support were associated with
having a job and more favorable attitudes toward work.  Social
support has also been found to be associated with better mental
health, a greater acceptance of oneself as a member of a community
of persons with disabilities, and better adjustment to a disabling
condition (Belgrave & Walker, 1991).  Under conditions of stress
such as those that might occur when one is unemployed or with
medical or disability-related concerns, social support can reduce
stress and help the person function better.  For African Americans,
Latinos, and others who may have limited assets, social support is
very important.  Learning how to identify and access social support
is a useful skill.  Becoming a good provider of support is also
important since one is more likely to receive support in exchange
for providing support to others.   Strategies for identifying and
accessing social support are discussed in Chapter four.
Psychosocial Competence
     Psychosocial competence is the ability to function well at
tasks and to get along with others.  A person who is psychosocially
competent assumes responsibility for what happens to him/her,
actively copes with life events, and carries out activities that
enhance his/her well-being.   When social conditions are
oppressive, as may be the case with poverty, racism, and limited
employment opportunities, better coping styles can make a
difference in the person's overall adjustment to stressful life
circumstances. 
     Extensive research has documented the benefits of psychosocial
competence for several groups including African Americans and
Latinos (Tyler, Brome, & Williams, 1991; Zea, Tyler, & Franco,
1991; Zea, Belgrave, Townsend, Jarama, & Banks, 1996).  Planning
and goal setting are strategies which enhance psychosocial
competence.  Psychosocial competence enhances the person's ability
to better cope with adversity and stress.  For African Americans
and Latinos with disabilities, the use of strategies to improve
psychosocial competence are advantageous.  Sessions were designed
to enhance psychosocial competence through activities that
encouraged goal-setting, active planning, and taking
responsibility.  These sessions are discussed in detail in Chapter
five. 
Cultural Considerations:  African American and Latino World-Views 
    In the development of any intervention program,  it is
important to understand the culture of the participants and whether
the aims and activities of the program fit the targeted group.  
Accordingly, the world-views of African Americans and Latinos were
considered.       While there is a great deal of diversity among
African Americans and Latinos, there are also several shared
assumptions which guide how each cultural group thinks and behaves. 
The dimensions of an African American World-View have been
identified by several scholars (Akbar, 1979; Myers, 1988; Phillips,
1990; Randolph & Banks, 1993).  They are discussed briefly below:
         Spirituality - belief in a Supreme Being; emphasis on
spiritual over material or           integration of the two in
everyday life;

         Communalism - emphasis on group over individual,
interdependence of people,           a social-communal orientation;
emphasis on cooperation rather than competition;           people
focused rather than task focused;

         Expressive communications/Orality - receive and transmit
information orally;           rhythmic communication;

         Harmony - emphasis on integrating parts of one's life
into a whole;           interdependence of persons with the
environment;

         Time as a social phenomenon - time viewed as beginning
when everyone arrives           rather than as measured by the
clock; time is circular and fluid, not discrete and          
unconnected;

         Rhythmic movement - observed in gross motor movements;

         Stylistic expressiveness - in all manners of expressing
self, person has unique           style, flair, spontaneity, and
improvisation; and 

         Affective-sensitive to emotional cues - synthesizing
words and objects,           integration of feelings with beliefs;
integration of the verbal and nonverbal;           emotional
expressiveness.  

     A Latino World-View is characterized in general by a "Mestizo"
world-view.  The Mestizo world-view is a product of mixed cultures
(European, Amerindian, and African) and of mixed religious
practices and ideas.  Dimensions of a Latino world-view have been
identified by Zea, Quezada, & Belgrave, (1994).  These include:   
       Familialism - emphasis on the family as the main source of
support, including           the extended family (i.e., care for
the elderly and all family members); 

         Communalism - accepting the Indian cultures' view that
the person is an open           system; interaction with nature and
with the community; more emphasis on           cooperation than on
competition; 

         Allocentrism - relational emphasis; more emphasis on
other rather than on self;           Latino culture places emphasis
on the people and interpersonal relationships           rather than
on tasks;

         Diversity - openness to diversity, acceptance of
different cultures; 

         Spirituality - emphasis on the spiritual over the
material; belief in a Supreme           Being; 

         Expressive communication/orality - strong oral tradition
to receive and transmit           information; 

         Time as a social phenomenon -- time viewed as beginning
when everyone           arrives rather than as measured by the
clock. 

     As seen by the above dimensions there are several similarities
between the African American and Latino world-view, yet there are
also differences.  One most notable difference is language.  
     The cultural values of the participants were considered and
used in the development and implementation of activities and the
development of the format of the sessions.  The African American
sessions were facilitated by African Americans, and Latino sessions
were facilitated by Latinos.  All written and verbal materials were
in Spanish for Latino participants.  A group format was considered
relevant for African Americans and Latinos because of cultural
values that stress interpersonal relationships, people
orientations, and interdependence.        The overall goal of the
project was to improve outcomes through the use of social support
and  psychosocial competence interventions.  We wanted to improve:
a) functional outcome, directed at improving functioning in
activities of daily living and in the community; b) vocational
outcomes, directed at increasing employment and employment
potential; and c) mental health outcomes, aimed at enhancing
participant's positive attitudes about their disability and
decreasing feelings of stress and depression.                           Chapter
Two                    
Recruitment and Retention 
     The success of any program depends largely on the ability of
the program to recruit and retain (i.e., maintain the active
participation of persons) persons for which the program is designed
to benefit.  Several steps were implemented to recruit participants
and to keep them motivated once recruited.  Guidelines for
recruitment and retention are discussed in this chapter.
1.   Establish clear objectives.
         The program objectives should be clear.  Potential
participants and collaborating           agencies will want to know
the exact purpose of the program and what it intends           to
accomplish.  They will also want to know exactly what the structure
and           format will be (e.g., time and frequency of meetings
and place).

2.   Enlist support of participating and sponsoring organizations. 
        Recruitment may be done by consumer groups,
rehabilitation professionals, or           other organized groups
and persons.  Initially, support should be enlisted from          
the host organization, consumer group, or agency from which persons
will be           recruited.  Several meetings may be needed to
explore mutual needs and           concerns.  While clarity
regarding objectives and activities is essential,          
flexibility and the willingness to negotiate with other interested
parties about the           objectives, activities, and structure
is equally important. If you are not a           member of the
organization or agency, learn as much as you can about the        
  sponsoring organization before beginning this process.

         Enlist the commitment and support of key individuals
from all participating           organizations. This is critical! 
We targeted customers of Rehabilitation Services          
Administration (RSA).  Several meetings were held initially with
officials and           staff at RSA to discuss our program and to
learn more about RSA. 

3.   Involve Representative Group Participants.
         Future participants will be recruited from the target
population. It is essential           that representatives from the
target population be involved in the recruitment           and
retention in the beginning of the project.  Through the involvement
of           consumers, needs, probable obstacles, and other
concerns can be identified           which will contribute to the
success of the program.  For example, early on in           our
project, participants informed us of the importance of holding
sessions           within the communities where they reside and the
best time to hold these           sessions.     

4.   Provide participants information about the program.
         Once key staff persons within an agency and organization
are involved and           committed to the program, distribute
information about the program to potential           participants. 
We designed a flyer that briefly described the purpose of the     
     program, activities, and the meeting place.  Flyers were
posted in RSA and           given to rehabilitation personnel to
distribute to potential participants.  If a           person was
interested in learning more about the program, he/she completed a 
         referral form and gave it to his/her rehabilitation
specialist. This person became           our agency contact for the
prospective participant. The name, phone number,           and the
best times to call were provided on the referral form.   Each
person was           contacted within a few days of referral.

5.   Follow-up initial referrals immediately.
         Do not wait too long to contact potential participants
after receiving an initial           referral because you do not
want to lose their interest in the program.  Be aware          
that some of the persons will not have telephones, and it may be
necessary for           them to be contacted through a relative or
friend.  

6.   Provide additional program information through direct contact. 
        The initial phone call can provide potential participants
with additional           information and the opportunity to ask
questions.  Specific information about the           time and place
of the sessions should be provided.  Typically, participants will 
         want to know what they can expect to get out of the
program, i.e., will it help           them to find a job, a place
to live, etc.  

7.   Send confirmation letters a week before sessions begin.      
   Mail prospective participants a confirmation letter a week
before the sessions           start.  This letter will confirm the
specifics outlined in the phone call (i.e.,           meeting time,
address, purpose of the program, contact names, and telephone     
     numbers).  Ask the person to notify the program staff if
he/she cannot attend the           first session. 


8.   Address participants expectations at the first session.      
   Clarifying what the program is and is not helps eliminates
potential problems           and disappointments.  If participants
have a different expectation of the program           a decision
will have to be made regarding whether or not to encourage him/her 
         to stay in the program. For example, if the participant
expects that the program           will find him/her a job, his/her
unmet expectations may result in disappointment           which may
interfere with the activities of other group members. Once        
  participants have been recruited into the group, make efforts to
maintain initial           levels of enthusiasm to keep retention
high.  

9.   Use strategies to motivate persons and sustain high retention. 
        Several strategies can be used to maintain high levels of
group participation. For           example, in one of our groups,
buddies called each other during the week.            Weekly
reminder phone calls from project staff or other participants may
help.           Incentives also encourage regular attendance. In
our groups, participants were           given certificates if they
attended all or most of the sessions.  Some participants          
used the certificates in their job search efforts to show potential
employers that           they had participated in a program
designed to enhance their skills. 

         Provide transportation and child-care if needed.

         If funding is available, monetary incentives are
helpful.  Most of our           participants were unemployed and
had limited financial resources. 

                   Once members have attended a few sessions, the
sessions become the motivator.                           Chapter Three
                         
Group Process
     Learning in groups may be more powerful than individual
learning.  Other members' experiences, feedback, support, and
encouragement can be beneficial.  This is particularly true for
people from relationship-oriented cultures such as African
Americans and Latinos.  In this chapter, we discuss aspects of
group process and structure and provide tips on how to facilitate
this process. 
Develop Rapport among Group Members
     In order for groups to run smoothly, it is important to
develop rapport and trust among members.  People are more likely to
listen to feedback provided by those they trust.  It is easier to
trust persons who are familiar and similar.  To facilitate the
process of sharing information, the initial session might begin
with icebreaker activities.   Active listening is important for
establishing adequate rapport.  It is essential that group members
feel that facilitators (the group leaders) and other group members
listen to them.  Those unfamiliar with the concept of active
listening can benefit from the group facilitators modeling how to
actively listen.  Active listening can be a support and life
enhancing skill (e.g., useful for job interviews, in the work
place, etc).  This technique is beneficial in that it increases the
ability to hear feedback and understand others perspectives. 
     It is important to note that not everyone is accustomed to
having counter points raised to something they have said. This may
be experienced as negative criticism.  Feedback in the form of a
dissenting opinion can be experienced as criticism if the group is
not perceived as a safe and trusting place.  However, when trust is
developed, a counter point will be perceived as an opportunity to
see another person's perspective or engage in a lively discussion. 
The role of the group facilitator is to create the best possible
climate and foster rapport by recognizing and encouraging
participants' contributions (e.g., using their experiences as
examples). 
     The following diagram illustrates how rapport promoted by
exercises such as  ice-breakers and active listening increases
trust among group members.                              Figure 1
                     Building trust in group 
 
Ice-breakers
                              Trust
                                        Willingness to
Active listening         Rapport             Receive Feedback     
  Learning


     Initial distrust among group members may be expected. Focusing
is normal, thus emphasis should be placed on similarities rather
than differences among members to increase trust.  For example, in
our first sessions members did not want to share their telephone
numbers with each other.  Sufficient trust had not yet been
established for that level of disclosure.   Because focus was
placed on similarities rather than differences among group members
they gradually began to share their phone numbers, life histories,
and by the end of the program, hugs!
Facilitators: Roles and Communication Patterns
     The program will benefit from facilitators who can relate well
to all participants.  The facilitator has a dual role: 1) to carry
out the activities of the project and 2) develop supportive
relationships among the group members.  The majority of time the
facilitator's role requires the wearing of many hats (e.g.,
teacher, trainer, counselor, coordinator, friend, etc).  Above all,
understanding what is involved when providing guidance and
encouraging personal development is essential. It is important that
the facilitator understand the feelings of participants and is
committed to contributing to the personal development of others. 
Our groups were facilitated by two individuals, a professional
facilitator (i.e., a person with graduate training in psychology)
and a peer facilitator ( a consumer of RSA). Both were trained in
how to carry out the group process and activities by the
investigators and had demonstrated a commitment to the project. 
African American groups were facilitated by an African American
facilitator and  co-facilitator and the Latino groups were
facilitated by a Latino facilitator and a co-facilitator.  
     Facilitators may be faced with the challenge of when to be
direct or lenient. In some instances, participants may function
better when there is structure and clear directions provided. 
Other times participants may function better with less  structure
and more autonomy.  Thus, carefully balancing the changing role of
the facilitator to meet the changing experiences of the group is
necessary.  Sometimes being supportive means providing feedback
that others will not.  The facilitator should speak the language of
the group members, being neither too technical and formal, nor
overly simplistic, informal, or patronizing.  One way to convey
your role to the group is to explain your responsibilities.  This
can be accomplished by:          Structuring activities; 
         Facilitating discussions and interactions among group
members;           Assisting in obtaining resources for the
group; and           Clarifying and interpreting information when
necessary. Cultural Influence in Communication Patterns
      The facilitator must be aware of the culture of the group. 
For instance, in the Latino culture, the concept of machismo places
men in a dominant position.  A Latino woman may not be used to
assuming an assertive role, or the men in the group may experience
difficulty accepting her authority and legitimacy as the
facilitator. One way they might seek to undermine her authority is
by asking her on a date, being flirtatious etc.  It is important
that these situations be handled carefully.
     Be aware of participants verbal and non-verbal cues as a
reaction to the group's process.  Often non-verbal language is used
to signal the level of comfort or discomfort the participant is
experiencing.  Consider the non-verbal behavior within the
individual's cultural context.  For example, if you are aware that
eye contact for one cultural group is a signal of disrespect, and
for another a signal of honesty, depending on which cultural group
you are interacting with it may be difficult to maintain eye
contact. Facilitating Discussion and Posing Questions:
     Most of the activities and exercises should be centered around
group discussions.  The use of open-ended questions encourage
participation and learning among participants.  Asking each member
for a response or the use of humor helps to facilitate the
discussion.       The facilitator can promote group understanding
and learning by providing summary statements and emphasizing
important points throughout the discussion.  It is also important
to keep participants focused on the topic.  When the topic has been
thoroughly reviewed, encourage members to remember the important
points and move on to the next item. Group Personality
     Groups develop a "personality" of their own.  Some have a
quick pace, others are more interactive, some always start on time,
others may never start on time, etc. Likewise, some group members
are outgoing, others shy.  No two groups (or members) are alike. 
Facilitators may have to adjust to the groups and members' special
characteristics.  Learning to accept and work with these
differences is important.  Discerning when a group member (or the
entire group) can be challenged in order to grow without causing a
rift in the group is essential.          In conclusion, the group
can be a very important source of social support for persons with
disabilities and a safe place for self-empowerment.  The group
process, as any learning/growth process, involves easy, joy-filled
moments as well as difficult and challenging ones. Overcoming hard
moments and moving through several stages is what creates a bond
among members and empowers them.  We hope you enjoy running  your
groups as much as we enjoyed running ours!  

                           Chapter Four
             Implementing Social Support Intervention
     The beneficial aspects of social support for African Americans
and Latinos with disabilities were discussed earlier.  Social
Support is expected to aid in improving mental health, vocational,
and functioning outcomes.  Several types and aspects of social
support will be discussed in this chapter.
     This chapter provides step by step guidelines for the
implementation of a social support intervention.  Seven sessions
will be covered.  Each session will include:      a.   a statement
which summarizes the goal of the session;      b.   a list of the
objectives;
     c.   activities to reach each objective; and
               d.   recommendations.                         SOCIAL SUPPORT 

                SESSION I: PURPOSE OF THE PROGRAM
                (What is this program all about?)

GOAL:     To explain the purpose of the program, objectives, and
methods.  OBJECTIVES: 
     I.   Introduce the social support program and what will be
covered.           Activity 1.    Introduce the program.

     II.  Clarify participants' expectations.  
          Activity 2.    Explain program structure.

     III. Encourage interaction among members. 
          Activity 3.    Establish rapport. 
OBJECTIVE I:   Introduce the social support program and what will
be covered. Activity 1:    Facilitator's Presentation.
     Introduce and explain the program: Introduce facilitator, co-
facilitator, staff, and group members.  Explain the purpose of the
session by identifying the goals and objectives of the program.
     a.   Each person in the room introduces him/herself. 

     b.   Define the goals of the program: (Our goals were to
enhance members ability to           recognize and access social
support resources in order to enhance           employability). 

     c.   Explain that the goals will be reached by program
objectives:  Our objectives           were to:

              Identify who and what organizations comprise our
social support                network.

              Learn how people provide support to each other.

              Learn how to use our social support network to help
accomplish our                goals.

     d.   Explain logistics of the program including schedules,
meeting place, stipends,           transportation tokens (if
provided).  If certificates are to be awarded for          
participation, explain requirements at this time.

OBJECTIVE II:  Clarify participants' expectations. 
Activity 2:    Group Discussion:  Explain the program structure.  
      Discuss what the program is and is not. Review what can be
expected from the facilitator(s) and group members. The following
was explained to participants of our groups.       a.   The Program
will meet for two hours weekly for seven weeks and provide        
  organized group activities and exercises initiated by group
facilitators and co-facilitator.

     b.   As Facilitator/Co-Facilitator we will:

              structure activities;

              facilitate discussion and interaction among group
members;

              assist in obtaining any needed resources for the
group; and

              clarify and interpret information when necessary

     c.   Group members are expected to:

              attend all group meetings on time;

              participate in discussions and group activities;

              share information with other group members;

              remain motivated and flexible to change;

              complete homework assignments; and

              inform the facilitator(s) if unable to attend a
session.

OBJECTIVE III: Encourage interaction among members.
Activity 3:    Group Exercise:  Establish rapport.
     This exercise provides members an opportunity to get to know
one another and become comfortable within the group. 
     a.   We initiated an ice-breaker exercise called "the chain."

              Inform members this exercise familiarizes them with
each other.

              Each member gives his or her name and then mentions
two reasons for                participating in the program. 
Members are asked to state the name of the                previous
individual in the chain and mention that person's reasons for     
          being in the program.


Recommendations for Session I:
     It is important to clarify the purpose of the group and to
address participants' expectations. This helps participants have a
better understanding of what they will get from the group.
         Facilitators should participate in the ice-breaker
exercise.

         Emphasize that it is important for each member to
actively participate in all           activities.

         Emphasize that attendance is essential. 

         Make sure all questions have been adequately addressed
before ending the                     session.                         SOCIAL
SUPPORT 

        SESSION II: IDENTIFY YOUR SOCIAL SUPPORT NETWORK 
                   (Who is there to help me ?)

GOAL:     To understand sources of support. 
OBJECTIVES:
     I.   Establish group norms.
          Activity 1.    Warm-up.
          Activity 2.    Developing Group Norms.

     II.  Identify sources of social support.
          Activity 3.    Word Association.
          Activity 4.    Drawing a Network Circle.

     III. Assign buddies.
          Activity 5.    Buddy matching.
OBJECTIVE I:   Establish group norms.  
Activity 1:    Group Exercise/Discussion:  Warm-Up.
     This first exercise is designed to allow group members to find
out more about each other and to illustrate aspects of social
support.     
         Ask members to comment on an activity or person that
positively helped them. Activity 2:    Group Discussion: Developing
Group Norms.
     This activity provides an example of how norms work to help
the group.  By determining what will govern group interaction, the
group and each member make a personal commitment to the group. 
Group norms will also increase cohesion (i.e., closeness) among
members. 
     a.   Define what a norm is and the importance of having norms.


               Example: "Norms are rules that indicate acceptable
ways of behaving in                the group."

     b.   Encourage members to discuss what norms they would like
for their group.

     c.   Enlist suggestions and post stated norms.

          In one of our groups, norms were:

                   Being respectful.

                   No cursing.

                   No sharing of confidential information outside
of the group.

                   Working together as a group.



OBJECTIVE II:  Identify Sources of Social Support.
Activity 3:    Group Exercise/Discussion:  Word Association.     
The concept of social support becomes meaningful when members
consider their own social support network.  Members can examine
their own social network by focusing on who provides social support
and how it is used. 
     a.   Using brainstorming, define what the word NETWORK
suggests.  

              Separate the word NET and WORK. Ask members to
brainstorm about                what comes to mind when they hear
those two words. 

              By considering all that NET and WORK mean, one
considers several                aspects of support.

     b.   Encourage active discussion about the significance of a
social network.            Brainstorm about how the word "social"
is associated with "network." 

              Discuss how one's "social" network provides support
from friends,                family, organizations, and community
agencies.

Activity 4:    Drawing the "Network Circle":
     The "network circle" provides a visual representation of each
member's social support network.  It illustrates the closeness of
each social support relationship (Appendix A).      a.   Ask
members to draw a circle representing their network of people whom
they           rely upon and who rely upon them.  Members draw
themselves in the center of           this circle and members of
their network around them. 

              The network includes all of the people that help
members to get through                challenges and difficult
situations and/or share in celebrations and               
successes. 

              Placing support sources at varying distances from
the center graphically                illustrates the strength of
that support. 

     b.   Ask each member to discuss who and what are in his/her
support network           circle.

              Ask members to share an example of a specific
support provider (i.e.,                mother, brother, church,
community service program) in their network                circle. 

OBJECTIVE III: Develop a buddy system. 
Activity 5:    Pair Exercise: Buddy matching.
     A buddy system provides an opportunity to expand one's network
immediately by identifying, another person in the group one can
provide support to and receive support  from.       a.   Prepare
labels with one name of a relevant pair printed on each label. 
Each           member is given a label with a name that is part of
a matched pair. In our           group, paired names included: Jack
& Jill, Peanut Butter & Jelly, Tick & Tock,           Hansel &
Gretel, Salt & Pepper, Merry & Christmas. Jack will be paired with 
         Jill. If Peanut butter is written on the name tag, the
member should search for           someone wearing a tag with Jelly
written on it. Tick should look for Tock and           Hansel for
Gretel, and Salt should look for Pepper; Merry goes with Christmas 
         and Happy will be a buddy to Thanksgiving; Pencil and
Paper will be buddies           and so on. 

     b.   Post the pre-determined pairs.  

     c.   Instruct members to sit next to their buddy and talk to
him/her for 5 minutes.           Information shared may include:

              Two things their buddy likes.

              Their buddy's "dream" job.

              What he/she does to relax.

              How each person feels about the social support in
his/her life.

     d.   Each member introduces his/her buddy and shares what
he/she learned. 

     e.   Encourage members to exchange phone numbers and contact
their buddy this           week. 

Recommendations for Session II:
         Use the Warm-Up exercise at the beginning of the second
session to encourage           rapport among participants. 

         Participate! Your role as a model is very helpful.   

         Create an atmosphere for everyone to share their ideas
before encouraging the           group to limit their norms. 

         Ensure that members understand they are expected to
abide by the norms they           select.

         Let members know that norms may be changed if necessary.


         Emphasize that everyone and everything that provides
support can be included           in the network (i.e., plants,
pets, etc.)

         Help members if they have trouble getting started.  

         Explore as many providers of support as time permits.

         The facilitator should not insist that buddies exchange
telephone numbers if                     there is resistance on
somebody's part.                         SOCIAL SUPPORT 

              SESSION III:  TYPES OF SOCIAL SUPPORT
        (How do I distinguish different types of support?)

GOAL:     To Distinguish among different types of social support
provider(s).   OBJECTIVES:
     I.   Introduce three types of support.
          Activity 1.    Warm-Up.
          Activity 2.    Types of Support.

     II.  Identify appropriate providers of support.  
          Activity 3.    Identify social support and providers.   
       Activity 4.    Matching support type(s) to support
provider(s).            Activity 5.    Group Exercise: Problem
Solving.

     III.  Identify Employment Skills and Occupational Interests. 
                                  Activity 6.    Individual
Exercise: Identifying skills.OBJECTIVE I:   Introduce three types of support.
Activity 1:   
Group Discussion: Warm-up. 
     Most sessions began with a warm-up exercise designed to elicit
support and allow participants an opportunity to show concern for
one another.  Members are asked to share the kind of support they
experienced over the week.  This activity encourages positive
interaction among members and prepares the group for discussion. 
Ask each member to share an example of when they needed or sought
support from their network circle.   Discuss each example in terms
of:
         Who they called upon (i.e., brother, aunt, mother,
husband) for support.          What specific type of help was
needed (i.e., babysitting, a ride, money).          What specific
type of help was provided (i.e., a referral to a baby-sitter, a
ride,           bought groceries, paid telephone bill).

Activity 2:    Group Discussion: Types of Support:
          Introduce three types of support:  Emotional,
Informational and Material      Members will examine the different
types of support. The following definitions may be used.     

         Emotional support may include being listened to,
receiving encouragement, or           praise, engaging in an
activity which makes one feel connected to someone.

         Informational support may include giving and receiving
specific advice and           information.   

         Material support may include a tangible item or service
necessary such as           money, transportation, or babysitting.

     a.   Ask members to define and explain what each type of
support means to them.           Incorporate information shared
during warm-up exercise in this discussion. 

           Post the definitions and explanations given by members.

     b.   Discuss where and how types of support may overlap (i.e,
informational and           material).

OBJECTIVE II:  Identify appropriate providers of support.
Activity 3:    Group/Pair Discussion: Identify and link social
support types and providers.      Members learn how to determine
and link the appropriate form of social support to a particular
need by thinking about the types of support available from each
source.  Discuss how to determine an appropriate type and provider
of support for a particular situation.  You may use the following
situations to begin the discussion. Situation      What type of
support is important?      Provider/Source

You have a job emotional: receive encouragement        sister,
career, interview and  information:receive interview tips     
center, bus, or you are nervous     material: get a ride          
         neighbor about it. 

Other suggested situations are:
               
1.   You don't know 2.   Each time I start   3.   It doesn't matter 
    where to go to           a new assignment         how much I
prepare      get the skills                or project, I never    
 I never know exactly      you need for the         seem able to
finish it.  what to say about my      the job you want.           
                disability.                 

4.   I sent the employer                          5.   Ask members
to provide       a thank you letter                           their
own situations      a month ago and                             
based on their personal      haven't heard                        
  experience.
     anything. I feel depressed.


Activity 4:    Individual Diagrams:  Matching support type(s) to
support provider(s) in                my network circle.
     This activity helps members to learn how to appropriately
match support type to the provider(s).  Members learn the value of
their network when it is appropriately accessed.  Members
understand the importance of using the appropriate type of support
and provider to reach their specific goals.
     a.   Ask members to refer to their support circles and
identify the type of support,           (i.e., material,
informational, emotional, that each support source usually        
  provides). Provide paper and have each person:

              Make 3 columns and at the top of each column write:
emotional,                informational or material; 

              Think of an example of a type of support received
under each column.  
              Next to each type of support write the provider of
the support (e.g.                clinic, friend, etc.) 

     b.   Ask:

              Whether or not member's networks provide
appropriate types of                support? 

              What can we learn when we understand how support
works in our lives?                  

Activity 5:    Group Exercise: Problem Solving. 
     Participants apply what they have learned about social support
to reaching a personal goal. 
     a.   Peer Support: Helping each other.

               Each buddy pair identifies one goal (i.e.,
employment, reducing stress,                etc). Buddies work
together to identify what type(s) of support are               
needed, and the most appropriate person to provide a particular
type of                support from their support network. Buddy
pairs report to the group.        b.   Have members list personal
needs and goals, the support needed to achieve that           goal,
and the most appropriate person in their network who can provide
the           support.

              Participants list the members of their network that
can help them reach                goal(s).

OBJECTIVE III: Identify Employment Skills and Occupational
Interests.  Activity 6:    Individual Exercise:  Identifying
Skills.
     Members learn about their current skills and employment
interests. These are linked to potential jobs and positions. 
     a.   Each member identifies an area in which they are
interested in seeking           employment. Encourage members to
think about a "dream" job. 

              Each member should list every possible area they
would be interested in                working.  For Example:
Medicine, Business, Fashion, Construction,                Retail,
Legal Services, Food Services, Public Relations.

     b.   Under areas of employment, each member should decide upon
a particular job           that they would like to pursue in that
industry or employment area. Members are           encouraged to
include at least three areas and three positions.

     For Example:  

          *Medicine: Medical assistant, nurse, records clerk,
receptionist, physician,           personnel representative,
nutritionist.

          *Business: Secretary, executive assistant, receptionist,
word processor, data           entry clerk, mail clerk, customer
services representative.

          *Fashion: Seamstress, sales clerk, designer, showroom
model, tailor,           receptionist.

          *Legal Services: Lawyer, para-legal, courtroom
transcriber, translator, judge.

     c.   Members make a list of the skills they possess. 

              Define SKILL:  "A skill is the ability to perform
a task effectively."                 Ask members to determine what
tasks they perform well and experiences                they have
performing the task.

              Each member lists the skills they currently have -
whether as a volunteer                or as a paid employee next to
the areas/industries in which they wish to                work and
along with possible positions (i.e., telephone skills,            
   bookkeeping, public speaking, writing).

     d.   Ask members to draw two overlapping circles and match
their work skills with           the skills needed for their job
interest or dream job.      
     For Example:

     Skills                   Job                 Work Interest

     Typing              Legal Secretary/Clerk    Law
     Telephone

     In this example the identified skills are typing and telephone
and the industry/area      interest is law.  The area in which
skill and interest overlap may produce a possible job     
opportunity. 

     e.   Link this exercise to the social support network circle
exercise by asking           members to consider what support is
available to assist them in securing           employment. 

     f.   Identify what social support resources are available to
members (i.e., job           training centers, community bulletin
boards, church employment bulletins, etc.).

     g.   In a group discussion, discuss how one's needs (i.e.,
employment) can be met           using social support. 

              Encourage group members to share both positive and
negative outcomes                of seeking or expecting support.

              Encourage members to focus on the importance of
selecting  the                appropriate source/provider and type
of support to meet their needs. 

              Emphasize how an incompatible match between the
source and type of                support can lead to unwelcome
outcomes (i.e., sharing personal                information with
the social worker and benefit coordination problems               
with a sister).  Provide examples of what can happen when the fit 
              between the source of support and the type of support
is not good. 


Recommendations for Session III:
         Use overlapping circles as homework assignments if you
run out of time.

         Practice "networking" by having each member share their
job interest and any           other helpful information on jobs
which will be a form of informational support                    
for the group.                         SOCIAL SUPPORT 

              SESSION IV: LEARNING TO BE SUPPORTIVE
                     (How do I give support?)

GOAL:     To learn how to be supportive of others. 
OBJECTIVES:
     I.   Learn to be supportive.
          Activity 1.    Warm-Up/Review.
          Activity 2.    Giving and Receiving support.

     II.  Learn how to provide emotional support.
          Activity 3.    Role Play: Active listening.
     
     III. Learn how to provide informational support.
          Activity 4.    Role Play: Providing Feedback.

     IV.  Learn how to provide material support. 
          Activity 5.    Enhance support given and received.      
    Activity 6.    Rehearsing Together:  The Job Interview.  OBJECTIVE I:
  Learn to be supportive.
Activity 1:    Group Exercise: Warm-up/Review. 
     Ask each member to share how his/her network was helpful
during the week. Their      comments should focus on who and what
kind of support was provided to aid in      reaching a specific
goal (i.e., getting cough suppressant for a cold, food on the
table,      resume reviewed, etc.). 
Activity 2:    Group Discussion: Giving and Receiving support.    
 Ask each member to share their experience of being supportive to
members within their      network.  Discuss the feelings associated
when support is given and received.       Suggested questions:
          a)   Why do I give support?

          b)   How do I feel when I give support?

          c)   What type of support do I prefer to give?

          d)   What does it feel like when I do not know what type
of support to                provide?

         Encourage members to explore the relationship between
the type of support they           would give and the type of
support they would like to receive by asking the          
following questions:

          a)   What is it like not knowing how to receive support? 
        
          b)   How can I let members of my support network know
when I need                support?  

          c)   Do I provide one type of support more than another?


OBJECTIVE II:  Learn how to provide emotional support.
Activity 3:    Pair Exercise:  Role Play: Active listening.      
This activity demonstrates how a supportive action such as active
listening can provide emotional support. 
     a.   Ask members to define active listening.

              Post definitions.  

              Discuss what kind of support active listening can
offer.

              Discuss ways in which one can tell if someone is
actively listening to                them. 

     Consider apparent physical changes:

              body movements (body posture and positioning)

              facial gestures (eye contact, smiles)

              acknowledging comments (voice intonation and
quality)

     b.   Role play a situation where members can observe active
listening (i.e., job           interview, giving someone
disappointing news, or encouraging someone).

              Have each member observe and take notes of what is
going on during the                role play.

              Facilitate a discussion about what was observed.
Are there cultural                differences in the way people
actively listen? 

              Outline what cues the listener gives that he/she is
being supportive.

          For example: The listener:

              Acknowledges that he/she is available to listen.

              Acknowledges understanding what is being said by
paraphrasing and                restating essential points.

          
              Confirms that the person is finished talking by
inquiring if they have                more to say.

     c.   Buddy pairs rehearse active listening.  Members discuss
their feelings.

OBJECTIVE III: Learn how to provide informational support. 
Activity 4:    Pair Exercise:  Providing Feedback.
     This activity demonstrates how providing information is a way
of supporting someone.      a.   Enlist and post definitions of
what it means to provide information. 

     b.   Discuss when it is appropriate to provide information for
someone from           members.  How do you know what to say?

     c.   Each buddy pair role plays providing information to
another for the group.       The following is an example of a role
play situation:
          A member presents a difficult problem: "I was not
prepared for one of the           questions the interviewer asked
me. I thought he was getting too personal when           he asked
me how my children were cared for after regular work hours."      
    Second member provides informational assistance: "I can
imagine. It sounds like           the question was not related to
the job description. You seemed to feel           uncomfortable. I
don't think one could be prepared for that type of question.      
    I've decided to answer all personal questions by shifting my
response to           something job related.  Try saying I am
committed to maintaining my           responsibility to the company
for which I am employed."

     d.   While practicing providing information support, members
determine how           appropriate the information provided
supports the individual.  

              Consider:

                   Was the body language supportive?

                   Was the information accurate for the problem?

                   Did the member feel supported through the
feedback of comments                     and information?

OBJECTIVE IV:  Learn how to provide material/instrumental support.
Activity 5:    Group Exercise/Discussion:  Enhance support given
and received.      Discuss how social support can be used to
enhance employment seeking.       a.   Discuss how group members
can provide material support related to           employment to one
another.

              Members are asked to consider who they provide
material support to                (e.g., a ride, a meal, or
assisting in completing an application).

     b.   Ask members to make a list of their own resources for
finding employment.

              Ask each member to bring in a newspaper, job
bulletin, flyers,                application and any other helpful
item that they can exchange with other                members. 

Activity 6:    Group discussion and role play:  Rehearsing
together:  The job interview.      a.   Encourage members to share
job hunting information as a way to practice giving           and
receiving informational support.   One topic may be appropriate
dress.            Discuss what is appropriate attire for an
interview keeping in mind that choices           may depend on
specific job.  Provide dress topics on a flip chart to review.    
       These may include:

              colors: red versus blue, bright versus dark,
patterns versus plain

              style: funky versus avant garde, casual versus
formal

              accessories: Jewelry, make-up, cologne/perfume.   
  A group discussion of appropriate attire might focus on the type
of job, (i.e., uniform      requirement, location, shift, perceived
expectations of employer, members culture). 

     b.   Define the term body language.  Ask members the following
questions to           provide their understanding of "body
language."

              When do you get an impression about a person?

              Does your impression start when the person talks or
before?

              How do you read body language i.e., slouching in a
seat before a                meeting? 

              Discuss what specific body language might signify. 
Ask for a buddy                pair to volunteer to demonstrate
various poses and expressions or habits                that could
cue the interviewer about aspects of the candidate's              
 personality.

              Emphasize the visual impact of inappropriate habits
and different body                language signals through role
play.  For example: smoking, chewing                gum, sucking on
candy, may signify the candidate is nervous, doesn't              
 care about their health, etc.

     c.   Discuss the initial exchange before the interview: The
few minutes before the           interview are extremely important. 
Often the candidate is instructed to wait in           the lobby. 
Behavior during this period can be important to the outcome of the 
         interview. 

              Ask members to consider what they think from the
minute they wake up                and know there is an interview
that day until the receptionist says," the                manager
will see you."

              Review the steps that the interviewee will go
through the day of the                interview.  Provide examples
of steps on a flip chart.  

              Shower, shave and eat breakfast.

              Get dressed in the clothes laid out the night
before.

              Walk to the bus stop

     d.   Use the list of DO's and DON'Ts to guide the discussion. 
(See Appendix B for           Do's and Don'ts).


Recommendations for Session IV:
         Emphasize to members that the type of support that
should be provided is           determined by the situation.

         Discourage members from becoming very philosophical
about the reasons they           give or get support.  Try to keep
the discussion focused on real examples and           feelings.
                         SOCIAL SUPPORT 

             SESSION V: EMPOWERMENT VERSUS DEPENDENCE
               (I can versus I don't think I can.)

GOAL:     To become empowered through social support.
OBJECTIVES:
     I.   Understand how empowerment occurs when there is social
support.           Activity 1.    Changes in social support
network.           Activity 2.    Empowerment through social
support.           Activity 3.    Empowering Ourselves.
          Activity 4.    Disempowering Ourselves.
     
     II.       Develop help seeking skills.
          Activity 5.    Obtaining empowering help.
          Activity 6.    Number Line Diagram.

     III. Apply social support to reach a goal.
          Activity 7.    Daily Journal.
OBJECTIVE I:   Understand empowerment through social support.
Activity 1:    Individual Exercise:  Changes in social support
network.      Depending on situations, our relationships with
support providers may change.  Encourage discussion about the
expectations we have of people about their roles in our social
support network. Review your network.
         Have members look at their network circle to determine
if people and           organizations have moved to different
points in their network.

          Example: A brother and you have spent a lot of time
together lately and he has           provided you with emotional
support.  He has moved in a ring, closer to you in           your
network diagram. A friend, on the other hand may have moved a
little           further away this week.

         Are the roles permanent or temporary?

         Discuss how it feels when there is change in expected
support.  Activity 2:    Group Discussion: Empowerment through
social support.      This activity analyzes how social support can
empower or disempower by making one vulnerable.  
     Write on flip chart EM-POWER-MENT.
         Solicit group members definitions of empowerment. Ask
members to notice the           word P-O-W-E-R and consider what
other words come to mind.

Activity 3:    Team Discussion: Empowering Ourselves.
     Divide the group into Teams A & B: 
     a.   Have each team list 5 ways of self-empowerment through
the utilization of one's           network - either by giving or
receiving support.  Post each team's list.  Pose the          
questions, "Can we empower ourselves through the use of social
support? How? 

     b.   Have team A & B present their lists to the group. Ask
both teams to discuss           how they used their network to
further their goals. Guide the discussion to           include the
types of support sought and provided (i.e., emotional, material,  
        informational).

Activity 4:    Team Discussion:  Disempowering Ourselves.
     Examine how disempowerment can occur through social support. 
     a.   Have each team member from A and B list 5 ways one can be
disempowered           through the use of his/her network be either
giving or receiving support.           Emphasize possible negative
outcomes/feelings from receiving social support.           Ask the
question:

          "Can we disempower ourselves through the use of social
support?" "How?" 

           Example: One can experience disempowerment by becoming
overly dependent           on others for providing assistance, i.e.
transportation, money, and advice.            Taking the support in
one's network for granted fosters a dependence and          
reduces the self-reliance accessing appropriate support can create.

     b.   Have team A and B present their lists to the group.
Discuss the following: 

              "Using social support can be beneficial but
sometimes we are afraid of                seeking help."

              What is not good about having a social support
network?

     c.   Compare the Empowerment and Disempowerment lists.

OBJECTIVE II:  To develop help seeking skills.     
Activity 5:    Group Discussion: Obtaining empowering help.      
Members discover that new skills can be developed through accessing
and providing social support. These may include help seeking
skills, coping skills, planning skills, and networking skills. 
Members will discover that when they have a new challenge or
experience, their support providers can empower them to obtain
their goals.  Ask/discuss how one empowers oneself by learning new
experiences and new skills using his/her social support network.

     Example:
              If you ask someone to teach you how to fill out an
application, you                empower yourself for applying for
a job.

              If you ask a friend to come with you to take a
computer course, you                motivate and therefore empower
each other. 

Activity 6:    Group Exercise/Discussion: Number Line Diagram.    
 Striking a balance between under-utilizing and over-utilizing
one's network is important. Both extremes are disempowering. 
     a.   Discuss how using and not using one's network is
empowering. Ask one           member at a time to demonstrate what
overusing their network would feel like           to him/her.

     b.   The Number Line Diagram offers a visual representation of
how either extreme           can result in being disempowered.

          1)   Draw a large number line with numbers from 1 to 15. 

          2)   One represents minimal use of the network and 15
overuse. 

          3)   Ask members to identify where they are on the number
line in terms of                use and misuse of their social
support network.

                                    |--|--|--|--|--|--|--|--|--|--
|--|--|--|--|--|                     1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10
11 12 13 14 15

     c.   Make the point that efforts to gain social support can be
interpreted as under-utilizing or over-utilizing our network.  Both
can have negative consequences.            For example: over-
utilizing emotional support from family members may lead to       
   their avoidance or unwillingness to provide essential assistance
when it is really           needed.  However, under-utilizing
social support may lead to missed           opportunities and
available resources.

     d.   For each of the situations on the next page, there are
options that require           varying degrees of support from the
network circle.  Ask members to provide           alternative
solutions to each situation.  Have them determine where they would 
                   place themselves on the number line. 

                           Situation 1

     _    I want to attend the group meeting, but I cannot find
anybody to take care of           my child.



                          Alternative A

.    I call a friend and ask her to babysit
     and in exchange I'll babysit for her
     tomorrow.

                          Alternative B

.    I bring my daughter with me and
     have her draw while I participate in
     the group.



Suggested situations can include:

_    I cannot protect my rights at work because I lack adequate
communication skills.

_    I cannot go on a job interview because I lack transportation
and do not know how to      get there.

_    I would like to engage in a recreational activity or hobby but
because of my physical      limitation I feel I cannot.

_    When applying for a job, I do not know how to let my potential
employer know      about my disability so that it does not backfire
on my chances of getting the job.

_    Members provide their own situation relevant to the
discussion.


OBJECTIVE III: Learn how to apply social support to reach a goal.
Activity 7:    Individual Exercise:  Daily Journal.    
     A daily journal or planner is a tool that can help keep track
of how much progress is made relative to the accomplishment of
goals. 
     a.   Discuss how a calendar, organizer/planner can be used to
record information           such as: people talked to, friends and
organizations consulted, and how this can           help one reach
one's goals.  

              Introduce an EMPLOYMENT DAILY JOURNAL OR PLANNER as
an                example of a more focused approach. 

              Discuss pros and cons of this approach.  PROS and
CONS should                address the  feelings that accompany
keeping a record of one's social                support system.

                               PROS     

               _    Provides accurate information of my contact
with my network;

               _    Lets me know when I need to contact someone
again;

               _    I can determine when I need to take a break;

               _    I can feel good about myself because I am using
my social                     support and I am trying; and 

               _    I can see who I haven't contacted in my
network.

                               CONS

               _    It won't work because I won't write in it each
time I use my                     network;

               _    I will feel bad when I see no one has returned
my call;

               _    It will depress me when there is no activity;
and

               _    I will lose my log.

              Post a typical daily sheet for the weekday.








For Example:

                          Employment Log


                               Date
                                 
                               Time
                             Activity
                         Contact Persons
                               Name


                             July 16
                            9:00 a.m.
                           pray for job
                          prayer partner


                             July 16
                            9:40 a.m.
                          go to library
                            Librarian


                             July 16
                            1:00 p.m.
                          call job lead
                          D.C. Personnel


                            July 17
                            8:30 a.m.
                       check newspaper job
                           Ms. Sheraton


                             July 17
                            9:00 a.m.
                       copy resume/fill out
                           applications
                           Mr. Sheraton


                             July 17
                            10:00 a.m.
                        write cover letter
                                 


                             July 17 
                            12:00 a.m.
                          lunch-discuss      job lead
                           Cousin- and
                            co-worker


                             July 18
                            8:00 a.m.
                         read and rested
                                 



         Discuss what information this log provides about the
social support network and           its influence on employment
goals.
Recommendations for Session V:
         Encourage same time, same place, and every day writing
in one's journal or           employment log, even if no activity
took place.  This will foster discipline and           help
participants focus on reaching their goals. 

         Instruct participants to list accomplishments of
preceding day. This serves to                     reinforce the
progress being made.                          SOCIAL SUPPORT

                   SESSION VI: CULTURAL ASPECTS
                     (What values do I have?)

GOALS:    To Explore how giving and receiving social support
relates to our cultural           values. 
OBJECTIVES:
     I.   Discuss social support as a cultural value. 
          Activity 1.    Social support values in this society. 

     II.  Understand how one's culture impacts social support.    
       Activity 2.    Different values of social support.         
 Activity 3.    Integrating congruent social support values.      
    Activity 4.    Enhancing cultural values through social
support.

OBJECTIVE I:   Discuss social support as a cultural value.     
This session is designed to identify how different cultural groups
may have different values about giving and receiving social
support.
Activity 1:    Group Discussion: Social Support values in this
society.      As members share their beliefs and feelings about
values of social support in the majority culture, they develop an
understanding of how their understanding of social support is
impacted by society's values.  Ask/discuss the following questions: 
         Is social support valued in this society?

         What kind of support is valued in this society? (Use
specific examples to           illustrate each answer).

         Is one type of support valued more than another?
(Provide examples).

     Example:

         Is the informational support provided by Social Workers
valued more than your           friend's support? Why?  Be
specific.

         Do community organizations provide a better source of
material support than           your church or mosque? 

OBJECTIVE II:  To understand how one's culture impacts
understanding social                support.
Activity 2:    Group Discussion: Different values of social
support.      Group members will discuss whether or not social
support is a value that is viewed differently in their ethnic
group.  Encourage members to explore positive and negative aspects
of cultural values of social support.  Split the questions between
Team A & B.  Each team will discuss the following
questions/statements and present their responses to the group.    
     What are our values of support as an ethnic minority group?

         What are the positive aspects of our particular cultural
values?      

         Is the way we access our social support different from
how members of the           majority culture access their network?
How?

         How does our culture/background impact how we give and
receive social           support? Is it helpful?

     Example: Support may be viewed as providing verbal feedback
such as "uhm-uhm"      while someone is speaking or as making
physical contact (e.g., slapping five) when a      point is salient
to a personal situation.  These may be viewed as unique manners of 
    offering emotional support and considered specific to a
culture. 

Activity 3:    Group Discussion: Integrating culturally compatible
social support values.      a.   Ask members to consider whether or
not they integrate the majority and           minority cultural
values in their lives.

     b.   Discuss the strengths and weaknesses of this type of
integration experience.  

     c.   Discuss whether or not the support we provide and accept
varies depending on           the culture of the provider or
beneficiary.

              Are some forms of verbal expression used to signify
recognition of                cultural support?  Do these terms
vary for minority or majority cultures?                 How? 

Activity 4:    Team and Group Discussion:  Enhancing cultural
values through social                support.
     By sharing our thoughts and beliefs in this group, we
contribute and reaffirm our values in our community and the society
at large. We express the behavior we expect from our social support
network. 
     Define and discuss how we enhance our unique cultural values
are enhanced.          What is cultural affirmation? Re-
affirmation?
          Cultural Affirmation: Confirming through testimony and
behaviors the           origin and qualities of your heritage.  
         What does this kind of affirmation provide?

     Example:  Members may consider the following aspects of
cultural affirmation:

              Family Reunions

              The Church

              Dances

              Cinco de Mayo  

              Kwanza
Recommendations for Session VI:
         Do not attempt to reach a consensus from members.
Discussions may focus on            examining and exploring aspects
of one culture's and how it differs from the           majority
culture.  

         Foster an understanding of how to use all social support
by reflecting on the           specific role of culture in the
employment process. 

                   Emphasize that no culture is better than the
other.                           SOCIAL SUPPORT

                 SESSION VII: SUMMARY AND FEEDBACK
                       (What did I learn?)

GOAL:     To assess members perspectives on social support.
OBJECTIVES: 
     I.  Discuss the group experience.
          Activity 1.     What we learned.

     II.  Terminate the program.
          Activity 2.     Open Feedback.
          Activity 3.     Goodbye.
OBJECTIVE I:   Discuss the group experience. 
Activity 1:    Group Discussion:   What we learned.
     Members discuss what they have learned about social support
networks and the group experience.  Encourage members to share what
they learned individually and as a group. Post their feedback. 
Example: Our group members reported that they earned:
         How to use a network,

         How to prepare for an interview, and

         about types of support and providers of support.

OBJECTIVE II:  Terminate the program.
Activity 2:    Group Discussion:  Open Feedback.
     By asking for feedback about the sessions, members will
consider the impact of the program in their lives.  Ask members to
share honest, constructive criticism, and comments about the group.
         What do you think about the activities and methods
employed?          How could the program be improved?
Activity 3:    Group Exercise:  Goodbye.
     a.   Terminate the session in a culturally appropriate and
spirited manner. 

              Recognize the contributions of all members and the
sponsoring                organization.

     b.   Consider providing a letter of participation or
certificate.

     c.   Provide refreshments. 
Recommendations for Session VII:
         Proper termination during the last session of the
program is important. 

         Allow enough time to recognize members' contributions as
well as the           assistance of the sponsoring organization. 
                           Chapter Five
        Implementing Psychosocial Competence Intervention
     As outlined earlier, psychosocial competence refers to the
ability to function effectively at a personal, interpersonal,
social, and task level.  This chapter provides step- by-step
guidelines for the implementation of a psychosocial competence
intervention.  The seven sessions will include:
     a.   A summary of the goal of the session,
     b.   a list of the objectives,
     c.   activities to reach each objective, and
               d.   recommendations.                     PSYCHOSOCIAL
COMPETENCE

                SESSION I:  PURPOSE OF THE PROGRAM
                (What is this program all about?)

GOAL:     To explain the purpose of the program by identifying the
goals, objectives,           and methods to be used.  
OBJECTIVES:
     I.   Introduce the purpose of the psychosocial support
sessions.           Activity 1.    Introduce and explain the
program.

     II.  Clarify participants' expectations.
          Activity 2.    Introduce program format, structure, and
activities. 

     III. Encourage interaction among members.
          Activity 3.    Establish rapport. 
OBJECTIVE I.   To introduce the purpose of the program and explain
what will be                covered.
Activity 1:    Introduce and explain the program. 
     Introduce facilitator(s), co-facilitator(s), staff, and group
members. Explain the purpose of the session and identify the
program's goal and objectives.      a.   Have each person introduce
him/herself.

     b.   Define the goals of the program.  For example, our goal
was to become active           and planful individuals, to learn
how to set goals for ourselves and to enhance           our
potential for becoming employed.

     c.   Explain how the goals will be reached. 

          For example, our group's objectives were to:

              Take responsibility for and control of our lives  

              Become empowered by developing beliefs about our
ability to                accomplish desired outcomes,

              Learn how to set goals, and

              Develop action plans to accomplish our goals. 

     d.   Explain logistics of the program such as meeting times,
places, stipends, and           transportation arrangements.  If
certain outcomes (i.e., certificates, incentives)           are
contingent upon attendance explain them at this time.

OBJECTIVE II.  To clarify participant's expectations.
Activity 2:    Group Discussion: Introduce program structure.     
Discuss what the program is and is not.  Review what can be
expected from the facilitator(s) and group members.  The following
was explained to participants of our groups.      
     
     a.   The Program will:

              meet for two hours weekly for seven weeks.

              provide organized group activities and exercises
initiated by a group                facilitator and co-facilitator.

     b.   Facilitator/Co-Facilitator will: 

              structure all activities; 

              facilitate discussion and interaction among group
members; 

              assist in obtaining any needed resources for the
group; and

              clarify and interpret information when necessary.

     c.   Group members are expected to:

              attend all group meetings on time;

              participate in discussions and group activities;

              share information with other group members;

              remain motivated and flexible to change;

              complete homework assignments; and

              inform the facilitator(s) if unable to attend a
session.

OBJECTIVE III. To encourage interaction among members.
Activity 3:    Group Exercise:  Establish rapport.
     This is an opportunity for members to get to know one another
and establish rapport.        a.   Initiate the ice-breaker
exercise.

              Ask members to give their names and additional
information about                themselves.


              Have each member state his or her name and two
goals.  Goals may be                related to the program or
general life goals.  Each member says the name                of
the previous individual in the chain and mentions that person's
goals. 

Recommendations for Session I:
         Stress the importance of active participation be each
member in all activities and           emphasize that the success
of the group is contingent upon all members          
contributions.

         Emphasize that attendance is essential.

         Make sure all questions have been adequately addressed.

                   The facilitator and co-facilitator should
participate in the ice breaker exercise.                      PSYCHOSOCIAL
COMPETENCE

                    SESSION II: BEING A "DOER"
               (I take responsibility for my life.)

GOAL:     To understand how feeling responsible for one's life
enables one to control           it.
OBJECTIVES:
     I.   To promote rapport among group members.
          Activity 1.     An ice-breaker. 

     II.  To establish group norms. 
          Activity 2.     Develop group norms.

     III. To understand concepts of internality/externality.      
                             Activity 3.    "Victim" or "Doer."OBJECTIVE I.
  To promote rapport among group members.   Activity
1:    Group Exercise:  The ice-breaker.
     The exercise is designed to enhance interaction among members
and promote feelings of comfort in the group.  Participants share
and learn about one another.      a.   Initiate ice breaker
exercise.

              Ask members to share something from the day or
previous week that is                related to the goal they or a
fellow participant mentioned in the last                session.


OBJECTIVE II.  To establish group norms.
Activity 2:    Group Discussion:  Developing group norms.
     The establishment of group norms will help to foster
commitment to the group and in turn help the group meet its goal
and objectives.  This activity provides an example of how rules can
function to guide behavior.  
     a.   Define what a norm is and the importance of having norms.


              "Norms are rules that members will follow as
acceptable ways of                behaving in the group."

     b.   Encourage group members to discuss the norms of their
group.

              Some of the responsibilities of members and
facilitators mentioned in the                previous session may
facilitate discussion.

     c.   Post stated norms.

          In our groups members suggested the following norms:

              Start and finish sessions on time

              Show respect for each other

              Be honest

              Maintain confidentiality
OBJECTIVE III. To understand concepts of internality/externality. 
Activity 3:    Group Discussion:  Being a "Victim" or a "Doer."   
  Members will examine how one's behavior and explanations about
the causes of positive and negative events influence and impact
one's potential for success.  Members are encouraged to examine
their current beliefs and feelings about what happens in their
lives.  This will allow them the opportunity to visualize how their
beliefs and feelings affect the goals they set for themselves.
     a.   Discuss what is meant by internal and external.

              "Internality refers to the belief in one's ability
to control one's actions,                outcomes, and
consequences.  It refers to how much responsibility one           
    assumes for what happens in one's life (internal) as opposed to
believing                that "others" or external circumstances
determine what happens in our                life (externality)."

              Present internality as adopting a "doer" mentality
and externality as                adopting a "victim" mentality. 
For example, it is easy to believe at                times, we are
victims and forget that we have an active role in               
determining our life's outcomes.  We may not have control over    
           everything, but there are many situations that we can
control. 

          State:

              "It's up to me to feel like a Victim, or I can feel
like I can change my                life circumstances and become
a Doer in my life."

     b.   Discuss how a "doer" and "victim" mentality relates to
goal setting.  

              Learning to set goals implies feeling in control
and being responsible for                one's actions.  By
actively planning, we feel in control and responsible             
  and can behave in ways that will lead to desired outcomes.

     c.   Discuss how being a "doer" or a "victim" differently
impacts outcomes.  




          Example: 

          Is there a difference in what happens to one and how one
feels when he or she           feels in control of situations
versus when one relinquishes power and control?

              Ask members to provide personal examples of when
they feel in control.

     d.   Present specific examples of an internal "doer" and an
external "victim."

              Present a situation about seeking employment which
includes obstacles.                 Ask/discuss: 

                   What can be done about the obstacle(s)? 

                   What will happen if I take action or if I do
not take action?  (This                     question should address
both what may happen (e.g., got the job,                     met
the employer) and how the person may feel (e.g., I felt good,     
               I learned).

          Questions should be answered from the "Victim" (external)
and the "Doer"                     (internal) perspective.          In our
session, participants provided the following
reactions to the situation           presented:


                            SITUATION

"I have an interview and I don't know if I'm going because I don't
know                        how to get there"



                          What can I do?


                              VICTIM
.    I won't go because maps
     are confusing.
.    I am afraid.
                               DOER
.    I can ask a friend for directions.
.    I can call for information.
.    I can go there earlier to find the
     place.


                What will happen?/How will I feel?


                              VICTIM
.    I missed the interview.
.    I feel terrible.

                               DOER
.    I made it and know what
     happens in a job interview.
.    I feel good because at least I
     tried.



          The following may be helpful situations to discuss:

               "My living arrangements are uncomfortable."

               "I need a winter coat, but I do not have the money."

               "I have been in this country for more than a year
and I still don't know                enough English to communicate
with others."  [This situation may be of                particular
relevance for English as a second language participants (e.g.,    
           Latinos)]

     e.   Repeat the same exercise but this time ask for a
volunteer to describe a personal           situation.

              Break members into two teams.  Each team will
answer the questions                from both the "doer" and the
"victim" perspective.

              Discuss in the large group how it felt and what
happened when a                "victim" and a "doer" mentality were
adopted.

Recommendations for Session II:
              Use the ice-breaker exercise at the beginning of
the second session to                encourage interaction among
participants.  

              Link the exercise to objectives.  Encourage members
to share their                goals.

              Participate! Your role as a model is very helpful.

              Expect agreement and disagreement among group
members about norms.                 

              Encourage everyone's perspective before encouraging
the group to limit                their norms.

              Clarify to members that they are expected to abide
by the norms they                select.

              Let members know that norms may be changed if
necessary.

              Encourage participants to examine situations
involving their current                behavior when they may have
adopted a "victim" or a "doer"                perspective.

              Use "Doer" for internals and "Victim" for
externals.

              Urge members to distinguish between having a
"Victim" as opposed to a                "Doer" mentality. 
Describing specific instances for each option clarifies           
    differences. 

              Provide initial examples members can relate to
their current life                experiences.  

              Emphasize feelings of being in and out of control
when trying to reach                your goal.  This is especially
important in situations where actual                outcomes may
not be the desired ones (e.g., "I didn't get the job, but at      
         least I tried").

              Use examples of doer and victim mentality to
discuss issues such as                               racism,
prejudice, and discrimination.                      PSYCHOSOCIAL COMPETENCE

                    SESSION III:  EMPOWERMENT
                 (I can take charge of my life.)

GOAL:     To understand how feeling responsible and in control
leads to feeling           capable and confident. 
OBJECTIVES:
     I.   Understand empowerment.
          Activity 1.    Warm-up. 
          Activity 2.    Becoming "empowered."

     II.  Identify employment skills and occupational interests.  
          Activity 3.    Learning about my skills.

     III. Manage a job interview.
                                   Activity 4.    Role-playing a
job interview.OBJECTIVE I.   To understand empowerment:   Activity 1:    Group
Exercise:  Warm-up. 
     This exercise can be used to expand the concept of the
"victim" / "doer" mentality.  

     a.   Ask participants to share a personal experience from the
previous week where           they felt that they acted as a
"victim" or a "doer."

              Inquire about the consequences and feelings
associated with being a                victim or doer.

Activity 2:    Group Discussion:  Becoming "empowered."
     Members will examine how one's behavior and thoughts are
related to how empowered one feels and how becoming empowered
impact one's potential for success in life.  Empowerment is
important when setting goals.  It influences the ability to set
goals and the effort one puts into attaining them.  Goal setting is
one way to become empowered.      a.   Define empowerment.  

              Ask members to brainstorm about what empowerment
means                (EM-POWER-MENT).  Post members' definitions.

     b.   Explain to members:

              Being empowered refers to the belief in one's
capability to behave in                certain ways to attain
desired outcomes.  

              Empowerment emphasizes the "doer" mentality.      

              An empowering attitude is one which helps one learn
a method and/or                tools to master and use for the rest
of one's life.  Each learning                experience, each new
skill, is empowering!  

          Example:

          If I learn to fill out an application, I empower myself
for applying for jobs. If I           learn to use computers, I
empower myself to secure a different job.  If I enhance          
my ability to communicate, I empower myself to get the job that I
want, and I           better protect my interests.  It is not
enough to know that I can develop those           abilities, I need
to engage in those specific behaviors in order to become          
empowered.  

     c.   Link internality with empowerment.

              Ask/discuss how being a "doer" versus a "victim"
differently impacts                how empowered one feels. 
Empowerment assumes that you take an                active role to
achieve goals.  There is a difference in what a person is         
      likely to do, how confident he/she feels, and what happens
when he/she                is a "doer," as opposed to when one is
a "victim."

          DOER - POWERFUL 

               When one is a "doer" one plans ahead, adopts an
active role, and                assumes responsibility for what
happens.  One gains power directly from                the
attainment of the desired goals and from the experience of having 
              attempted to achieve these goals.  

          VICTIM - POWERLESS

               When one is a "victim," one mainly reacts, adopts a
passive role, and                does not assume responsibility for
outcomes in one's life.  One                relinquishes power from
not setting desired goals and/or from the lack of               
experience of having attempted them.

     d.   Link empowerment with goal setting.

              Ask/discuss how feeling empowered relates to goal
setting.  How does                learning to set and accomplish
goals help one feel in control and                responsible for
one's actions ("doer" mentality)? Use personal examples?

               Does empowerment relate to beliefs and feelings
about the capability we                have to carry out planned
behaviors and to engage in carrying them out                (being
a "doer")?  Share examples.

     e.   Present specific situations of how one empowers oneself
by thinking about           alternatives. 

              Present a situation.  Ask: What can I do about this
situation to feel                empowered; a "doer"? 

               Example: Members of the Latino groups provided the
following                responses to situations presented:

                            SITUATION

           "I cannot protect my rights at work because 
             I don't communicate well/speak English."


                           ALTERNATIVES

.    I can go to an office such as Rehabilitation Services
Administration where I can find      people who can understand my
problem and offer suggestions.

.    I can ask a friend to practice speaking with me.


The following are situations which may be relevant:

              "When applying for a job, I do not know how to let
my potential                employer know about my disability so
that it does not backfire on my                chances of being
employed."

              "I want to attend the group meeting, but I can not
find somebody to take                care of my child."

     f.   Ask members what happens when one has several
alternatives.           Why is it good to think of several
alternatives? 

          What would happen if I only had one alternative and it
did not work?           Is it helpful to rank alternatives ? 

OBJECTIVE II.  Identify employment skills and occupational
interests. Activity 3:    Group Discussion/Paired Exercise: 
Learning about my skills.      Participants will learn about their
current skills and employment interests.  These skills are linked
to potential jobs.  By focusing on potential employability,
participants develop feelings of satisfaction about self.  
     This session and activity provides an example of an exercise
for a dialogue to facilitate learning how to identify one's skills
and interests (See Social Support Session III, Objective III,
Activity VI).  Continue the exercise with the instructions below. 
     a.   Each member should refer to their own job circle.

     b.   In the large group, ask for volunteer pairs to discuss
their circles.  

     c.   Link outcomes of this exercise to feelings of becoming
empowered and to           working toward setting a goal.

              Discuss how identifying one's skills and areas of
job interest results in                empowering oneself.  Self-
knowledge about skills and abilities is                empowering
because it enhances the perception of self-worth and control      
         over situations.   
 
              Discuss how potential jobs identified can become
goals in one's life.                 Empowerment also implies
moving in a direction.  One is an effective                and
empowered "doer" when one knows where he or she is going.         
       Determining a potential job becomes a potential goal. 
Focusing on one's                skills and interests enhances the
likelihood of both attaining a desired job                and
performing well.

OBJECTIVE III. To learn how to manage a job interview.  
Activity 4:    Paired Exercise/Group Discussion:  Role-playing a
job interview.       Rehearsing is an active way to cope with job
seeking stress and learn appropriate interview skills. 
Participants will learn what is important in a job interview. 
Conducting practice job interviews will help participants plan and
become aware of how they can improve their interviewing skills.
     a.   Use the following topics to facilitate discussion.

              Appropriate Dress
                     what to wear
                     what not to wear

              Initial Interaction
                     what to say
                     where to sit



              Appropriate and inappropriate non-verbal Behavior 
                   eye contact
                    posture and body language
                    other aspects of non-verbal communication

              Interaction
                    how to convey interest and enthusiasm
                    how to ask questions
                    how to respond to questions
                    what not to say

              Knowing and Understanding Your Rights according to
the Americans                with Disabilities Act (ADA)
                    What is the Americans with Disability Act?    
                how to respond to questions about your disability 
                   how to respond to other questions (regarding
gender, age, etc.). 

              How to Conclude the Interview 
                    how to ask for follow-up contact

     b.   A review of Do's and Don'ts that may be helpful for the
interview are in            Appendix B. 
                                 
     c.   Ask for two volunteers to role play an interview. 
Volunteers will perform and           receive feedback on managing
an interview from the group.   
     d.   Ask group members to critically observe the role playing.

     e.   Discuss what the actors did well, what needs some
improvement, and what is           appropriate and expected in an
interview.

     f.   Link activity with being a "doer" and empowered.

              Discuss whether role-playing an interview is
helpful. 

              Relate discussion with planning and being future
oriented through proper                planning.  It is not enough
to think and believe that one will do well or                that
one may learn.  Rehearsing is the "doer" in action.

Recommendations for Session III: 
         Use warm-up exercises at the beginning of each session
to tie the past week's           objectives and activities with the
present sessions.  This will aid in linking and          
integrating sessions.

         Encourage active participation from group members. 
Role-playing is a good           way to increase the members
participation. 

         Linking the concepts of internality with empowerment
makes empowerment           easier to understand.  These concepts
overlap, and should be presented as           attitudes that
complement each other.  

         Encourage participants to share situations when they
have felt empowered.           Encourage members to give examples
from their life experiences. 

         Have members explore vast possibilities for jobs and do
not focus on           limitations.  Ask participants to think
about dream jobs when engaging in this           activity.

              Encourage members to think like a "doer."
                    PSYCHOSOCIAL COMPETENCE

                    SESSION IV:  GOAL SETTING
                    (What are my life goals?)

GOAL:     To understand how setting goals helps attain desired
outcomes.   OBJECTIVES:
     I.   Understand goal setting.
          Activity 1.    Warm-up.
          Activity 2.     What are my goals?

     II.  Identify the obstacles to reaching goals.
          Activity 3.     What are the obstacles in the way of
achieving goals?

     III. Identify alternative courses of action.
                    Activity 4.     What can I do about the
obstacles?OBJECTIVE I.   Understand goal setting.   Activity 1:    Group
Exercise:  Warm-up.
     Examine how one can attain desired outcomes by reviewing the
notion of  empowerment.  Group members will link becoming empowered
with setting goals.      a.   Ask participants to share a personal
experience from the last week where they           felt empowered
and/or like "doers."

              Inquire about the consequences and associated
feelings. 

     b.   Discuss the importance of having goals by using the
following drawings to           facilitate discussion. 
Participants will imagine that the "dot" is a person walking      
    and that the "walls" are obstacles in their way.  Discuss:

              What is the difference between the two?

              Which individual seems more exhausted?

     In our groups, members' comments were: 

              Fig. 1         
               
                   "Person has been walking in circles."

                   "Does not seem to know where he/she is going."

              Fig. 2

                   "He/she walks less and is heading somewhere."

                   Link past sessions' activities to goal
setting.  

     Discuss what adopting a "doer" mentality does for the goals
that one sets for oneself.

              Adopting a "doer" mentality implied assuming
responsibility for                outcomes in one's life.  

              Becoming empowered implies believing in one's
capability to attain                goals.  

              Learning about one's skills identifies what
direction to take.                     -  \  _- / \  -  /--
                /  _   / /  -  \   _-  | / \ -
                - \  _   /            ) I  / _/ 
               _- / \ ] |  \    O   / _- / \ - \
                 I \ / - -         / /  -  \  ][ l
                  -\ / _ _\ \ __ __ / ( ) - - /
                    _   /  _- / \     /-
                              Fig. 1
                    -  \  _- / \  -  /--
                /  _   / /  -  \   _-  | / \ -
                - \  _   /            ) I  / _/ 
               _- / \ ] |  \    O   / _- / \ - \
                 I \ / - -         / /  -  \  ][ l
                  -\ / _ _\ \ __ __ / ( ) - - /
                    _   /  _- / \     /-
                              Fig. 2
Activity 2:    Group Exercise:  What are my goals?
     Members will examine their goals and explore how setting goals
encourages a "doer" mentality.   
     a.   Establish a common group goal.

              Ask/discuss what member's goals are in relation to
their participation in                the group. 

              Relate goals to getting employment.

              Post goals.

OBJECTIVE II.  To identify the obstacles to reaching goals.
Activity 3:    Group Exercise:  What are the obstacles in the way
of achieving goals?      a.   Ask participants, "What were the
obstacles that prevented them from achieving           a desired
goal?"

              Explore all types of obstacles.  Encourage members
to think of different                kinds of obstacles. These may
include lack of transportation, advice,                information,
and emotional obstacles (i.e. lack of encouragement).

              Post obstacles.

     b.   Ask participants to rank order obstacles according to
difficulty.

          Example:
     
               Selected Goal:     "To have a job that I like in
an area where I am                                    competent." 
     
               Obstacles were ranked as follows:
          
               1. English

               2. Money

               3. Emotional support
               4. Preparation

               5. Motivation

OBJECTIVE III. To identify alternative courses of action.
Activity 4:    Group Exercise:  What can I do about the obstacles? 
    Participants will examine courses of action that can be taken
to deal with previously identified obstacles.  Thinking about
alternatives implies actively coping with obstacles.      a.   Ask
participants: "What are alternative solutions to the obstacles
identified?"

              Explore all possible alternatives.

              Post alternatives.

     b.   Ask participants to rank order alternatives.

          Example: the Latino group suggested the following:

          Selected Goal:  "To secure a job I like in an area where
I am competent."

          Alternatives to the obstacle of not being familiar with
English were ranked:            
          1.   Go to school.

          2.   Read and listen to T.V./radio/newspaper in English.

          3.   Make American friends.

          4.   Get English courses in video (for those who can't
attend school classes).

          5.   Keep motivation up.

          6.   Obtain support from others.

     c.   As a homework assignment, ask participants to identify
possible alternatives to           other obstacles on the list and
to rank order them.


     d.   Discuss strategies that will help when setting goals. 

              Introduce the use of a daily journal as a goal
setting aid.

              A daily journal will help group members keep track
of their daily actions                to find employment.  It will
help them to learn to plan on a long-term                basis.

              Ask participants to write down every activity they
do to seek                employment.

Recommendations for Session IV:
         Use warm-up exercises at the beginning of each session
to tie the past sessions           objectives and activities with
the present sessions.  

         Emphasize how managing obstacles and alternatives
systematically helps           members deal with one problem at a
time in a planful, orderly way. 

         Be certain members focus on whether they can really deal
effectively with some           or all of the obstacles and
alternatives at the same time. This is important to          
feelings of success.

         Be aware that interest and participation may decrease
during this session and           address these issues.  Group
members may not be used to the planful nature of                  
  the activities required to complete this session.  
                    PSYCHOSOCIAL COMPETENCE

                     SESSION V:  ACTION PLAN
              (How will I get what I want in life?)

GOAL:     To learn how to accomplish what you want.  
OBJECTIVES:
     I.   Determine specific goals.
          Activity 1.    Warm-up.
          Activity 2.    Review alternatives to identified
obstacles.           Activity 3.    Identify personal goals,
obstacles, and alternative courses of                         
action.

     II.  Develop an action plan.  
          Activity 4.    A weekly plan. 

     III. Review an action plan.   
          Activity 5.    Is my plan realistic?

     IV.  Understand the goal setting process.  
               Activity 6.    Summarizing the goal setting process.
OBJECTIVE I.   Determine specific goals. 
Activity 1:    Group Exercise:  Warm-up.
     This exercise is used to review previous sessions.  Group
members will share the opportunities they had to practice becoming
"doers" by engaging in empowering behavior.  The entire process of
"who is in control" to "what are the alternatives and obstacles to
reaching a goal" is reviewed.  
     a.   Ask participants to share a personal experience from last
week where they set a           goal for themselves.

              Discuss whether they were able to accomplish the
goal, and what                obstacles they had and how they dealt
with them.

     b.   Link the past session's activities to developing an
action plan.

              Ask members to define "action-plan." What does it
mean to them?

              Discussion questions may include:

                   Does adopting a "doer" mentality imply
assuming responsibility                     for outcomes in one's
life such as active planning?  

                   How does becoming empowered imply believing in
one's                     capability to follow the necessary steps
to achieve one's goals?  

                   Is learning about one's skills essential in
order to benefit from an                     action plan?

Activity 2:    Group Exercise/Group Discussion:  Reviewing
alternatives to identified                obstacles.
     Participants will examine what courses of action can be taken
to manage the obstacles identified in the last session.
     a.   Review homework assignment.  

              Discuss the alternatives to the other obstacles
identified?      b.   Ask participants to rank order alternatives.

     c.   Review what has been learned thus far in how to set
goals.

Activity 3:    Individual Exercise/Pair Exercise:  Identify 
personal goals, obstacles, and                alternative courses
of action.
     Group members will repeat the whole process, but now in a
personalized way.        a.   Ask participants to identify their
personal employment goal, the obstacles           related to it,
and alternatives to those obstacles.  

     b.   Have participants work in pairs (use pairs from previous
sessions) so that they           can provide feedback to each
other.

     c.   Discuss this exercise with members.

OBJECTIVE II.  Develop an action plan.  
Activity 4:    Individual Exercise:  A weekly plan. 
     Planning on a weekly basis makes goals more reachable.  Group
members will understand that actively planning on a weekly basis to
attain a long term goal involves progressively attaining short-term
goals.  Commitment to the long-term goal is increased because of
the feelings of satisfaction derived from accomplishing short term
goals.      a.   Introduce the weekly plan as an action plan.
                             Discuss how a daily journal can be
part of long-term planning.                 Example: one participant's daily
journal was:

                       DAILY EMPLOYMENT LOG


                               Date
                                 
                               Time
                             Activity
                         Contact Persons
                               Name


                             July 16
                            9:00 a.m.
                           pray for job
                          Prayer Partner


                             July 16
                            9:40 a.m.
                          go to library
                         Librarian-career


                             July 16
                            1:00 p.m.
                            call lead
                           D.C. Govt.   Personnel


        July 17
                            8:30 a.m.
                       check newspaper job
                           Ms. Sheraton


        July 17
                            9:00 a.m.
                       copy resume/fill out
                           applications
                           Mr. Sheraton


        July 17
                            10:00 a.m.
                        write cover letter
                                 


        July 17 
                            12:00 a.m.
                          lunch-discuss
                             job lead
                           Cousin- and
                            co-worker


        July 18
                            8:00 a.m.
                         read and rested
                                 


     b.   Post a volunteer's daily log.

              First fill in daily regular activities (e.g., cook,
pick up child) and then                continue with the activities
related to employment goal.

OBJECTIVE III. To review an action plan.  
Activity 5:    Group Exercise/Group Discussion/Individual
Exercise/Pair Exercise:  Is my                plan realistic?
     Group members will learn how to adopt a realistic assessment
in which positive and negative consequences of the activities
included in their action plan are considered.  This will involve
reviewing their action plan and learning to actively cope with
negative consequences.

     a.   Discuss: 
 
              What can be some of the consequences, both positive
and negative, of                engaging in some of the courses of
action selected? 

              What additional resources may be needed to
implement the action plan?

              Encourage a "realistic" discussion.  The daily
responsibilities and                activities of the person need
to be considered.  

     b.   Ask members to review their action plan based on former
discussion.

              Discuss the fact that being realistic about the
action plan and setting                goals may mean that
obstacles identified earlier cannot be addressed               
without additional resources.

     c.   Ask participants to develop their personal weekly plan.

     d.   Have participants work in pairs and look at each other's
exercise to provide           helpful feedback to each other.

     e.   Discuss a member's weekly plan.

              Emphasize how members feel when they plan.

     f.   As a homework assignment, have participants develop a
monthly action plan.

              Distribute blank monthly calendars.

OBJECTIVE IV.  To understand the goal setting process.
Activity 6:    Group Discussion:  Summarizing the goal setting
process.       Group members will have an overall review of the
work they have been doing thus far to become effective "doers." 
This activity will illustrate how reaching one's goals implies
engaging in active planning.
     a.   Discuss what has been done thus far in accomplishing
goals.               Use a poster to facilitate discussion.
                          Sample Poster


                           GOAL SETTING

1.   Set Goals

2.   Identify Obstacles (problems)      WHICH

3.   Generate Alternatives              WHAT

4.   Action Plan                        HOW

5.   Action                             DO

6.   Evaluation                         WHY



     b.   Discuss step 5: "Action" and step 6: "Evaluation."

              Step 5: "Action" implies the "doer" actively
planning.  Encourage                participants to start
implementing their weekly plan.  

               Step 6: "Evaluation" implies the "doer" constantly
evaluating and                revising (if necessary) the action
plan.
Recommendations for Session V:
         Some courses of action may well address more than one
obstacle; repeat steps if           necessary.

         As with the past session, there may be less
participation in this session than in           previous sessions. 
Group members may not be used to the planful nature of the        
  activities and the process of setting goals in a systematic
manner.

         Emphasize simplicity of the steps involved in obtaining
goals.  Focus on simple           words: which, what, how, do, and
why makes it easier to understand the           process.
                     PSYCHOSOCIAL COMPETENCE

                  SESSION VI:  CULTURAL ASPECTS
                (What role does my culture play?)

GOAL:     To identify and integrate cultural aspects of becoming an
empowered           planner and active coper.
OBJECTIVES:
     I.   Understand the values of the majority culture.
          Activity 1.    Warm-up.
          Activity 2.    Revise monthly action plan.
          Activity 3.    Being a "doer" is valued in the majority
society.  
     II.  Understand how one's culture impacts understanding
values.           Activity 4.    Being a "doer" as one of my
cultural values.

     III. Examine how the cultural values of being a "doer" impact
employability.             Activity 5.    How does being a "doer"
impact my employability?

     IV.  Enhance becoming a "doer" using one's cultural values.  
                                 Activity 6.    Integrating
compatible values. OBJECTIVE I.   Understand the values of the majority
culture.
Activity 1:    Warm-up. 
     Group members share the opportunities they had to implement
their action plan.      a.   Encourage participants to share a
personal experience within the last week           where they
executed their action plan. 

              Discuss what happened and how they felt.
Activity 2:    Group Discussion/Individual Exercise:  Revise 
monthly action plan.      Group members will understand that
planning on a monthly basis increases their likelihood of attaining
their long term goals.
     a.   Post the activities to be carried out during the month.
This activity is similar to           the weekly plan but expanded
to a month.

              On a monthly calendar (use flip chart or black
board to illustrate) fill in                the activities that can
be performed in a month. 

              First fill in daily responsibilities and then
include activities related to                goal.

Activity 3:    Group Discussion:  Being a "doer" is valued in the
majority society.      Group members will identify how adopting an
active planning and active coping attitude relates to values in
this society.  They will discuss how having a "doer" mentality
relates to this.
     a.   Link past sessions' activities with cultural values.    
      Discuss American values.
              What is valued in this society?
              Is being a "doer" valued in this society?  How?   
           Is setting goals fostered in this society?  How?

OBJECTIVE II.  Understand how one's culture impacts understanding
values. Activity 4:    Group Discussion:  Being a "doer" as one of
my cultural values.      Address the significance of culture as it
relates to being a "doer," being autonomous, and engaging in active
planning.  Group members will examine values specific to their
ethnic group.  This includes positive aspects of culture and how
adopting an active planning coping style relates to values fostered
in one's culture.  
     a.   Discuss values of different cultures.

              What is valued in my culture?

              Is being a "doer" and setting goals valued in my
culture?  How?"

              Is developing an action plan to attain desired
outcomes consistent with                cultural values for
reaching goals and overcoming obstacles?  

              Does setting goals differ from culture to culture?

              Do individual values which differ from the majority
culture make it                difficult to set goals and become a
"doer"?

For example, in our study the African American group's values
included being family oriented, relying on neighbors, and believing
in God.  In the Latino group, values included religion, machismo,
and family unity.

OBJECTIVE III. Examine how the cultural values of being a "doer"
impact                employability. 
Activity 5:    Group Discussion:  How does being a "doer" impact
employability?      Group members will identify how adopting an
active planning coping style relates to employability.  They will
also discover how one's cultural views relate to being a "doer,"
setting goals, and employment.

     a.   Discuss the impact of culturally derived values of active
planning in enhancing           employability.

              What positive or negative aspects of your culture
help you in your efforts                to become active "doers" in
obtaining employment?

     b.   Using the following job tips, discuss how some values of
individual's culture           promote empowerment, becoming a
doer, and taking control and how other           values of the
culture do not. 

     Job Tips:

              Develop a positive attitude.

              Remain consistent in job hunting activities and
efforts.

              Use all available resources to find a job (i.e.
Employment agencies,                newspapers, churches, library
career planning centers, public radio                stations,
public school or college personnel offices, public bulletin       
        boards, friends, neighbors, and relatives).

              Understand the organization:
                type, size, hiring practices, product, service,
etc.

              Complete the entire application process:
                Do not leave any blank spaces on the application,
tell the truth.

              Take time to identify the best method for applying
for that job or                approaching the job agency:
                Contact employer by phone, mail your resume, meet
manager                 informally, or ask a friend to hand deliver
your resume.

              Follow up the written application:
                Call the next week, write a thank you letter, send
a follow up letter                 restating your interest.

              Work on interview skills: Practice, practice, and
practice.

              Develop an alternative method of obtaining
employment:                 Deliver groceries to senior citizens,
start a day care service, start a                 house cleaning
service, start a word processing service, volunteer.

              Consider employment in jobs considered
untraditional for your gender.


         Tips for Keeping your job:

               Work to improve productivity;

               Get rest and remain alert; 

               Understand all instructions before performing a
task;  

               Perform work thoroughly; 

               Stay visible in organization; 

               Get to know your boss well; 

               Keep abreast of what is going on in the company,
division; department                and with the product or service
in the industry; 

               Dress like everyone else in your position; 

               Be cordial with your co-workers;

               Keep a positive attitude; and

               adhere to office etiquette at all times.

Discuss:
Are these job strategies culturally compatible with the majority
society's culture (i.e., dressing like everyone else, keeping a
positive attitude no matter what)?  If yes, how are they? If not,
should one assume the values of the majority culture when seeking
employment? Should these values be modified?
         Ask participants to list some of their job strategies
and post them.



OBJECTIVE IV.  Enhance becoming a "doer" using one's cultural
values.  Activity 6:    Group Discussion:  Integrating compatible
values.         Dealing with the majority's cultural values yet
maintaining one's own cultural values can be difficult. 
Participants will vent and share feelings (e.g., conflict, tension,
joy, and relief) about different values of the culture of the
majority and their ethnic group.  Empowerment will occur when one
knows the strengths of his/her cultural group.      a.   Discuss
compatible values.

              Does integrating values apply to African Americans
and Latinos?

              What are the pros and cons of trying to integrate
your values and values                from the majority culture in
a monocultural environment?

     b.   Discuss:  

              How can the positive characteristics of each
culture complement one                another?

              Is there value in integrating some cultural values?


              What positive aspects from both cultures can help
in being a "doer" and                engaging in goal setting to
obtain employment? Recommendations for Session VI:
         Use warm-up exercises at the beginning of the session to
tie the previous           sessions' objectives and activities with
the present session.

         Allow participants extra time to develop monthly plans. 


         Work closely with participants.  A directive role may be
appropriate to help           foster confidence among members as to
their capability to develop their goals           through this
exercise.  

         Work in pairs and individually to enhance the members
understanding of how           obstacles may vary from person to
person. 


         Expect that participants opinions will vary with regard
to how they value the           attributes of each culture.

         Discuss the pros and cons of each culture and the unique
contributions of           integrating certain values.  Encourage
members to discuss their preference of                     certain
cultural values.                      PSYCHOSOCIAL COMPETENCE

                SESSION VII:  SUMMARY AND FEEDBACK
                       (What did I learn?) 

          GOAL:     To assess members' experience (see Social
Support Session VII, pages 50-51).                           Chapter Six
                     
Summary and Conclusions
     In the previous five chapters, guidelines and suggestions for
implementing social support and psychosocial competence
interventions aimed at improving outcomes for African Americans and
Latinos with disabilities were discussed.  In this chapter, we
highlight some of the findings from our efforts at implementing
these interventions.  These findings may be useful for gauging what
others might expect from similar efforts.   Overall, using a group
approach seemed to work well with our groups of African-American
and Latino consumers of RSA.
     The findings discussed below are based on several indicators. 
These include observations of sessions, discussions with
participants and facilitators, and satisfaction data collected at
the end of the sessions.   Pre- and post questionnaires were
administered to assess other outcomes in the areas of social
support, psychosocial competence, mental health, and employment. 
The results of this data are provided in a separate report.  

1.   Consumers enjoyed the intervention and considered it
empowering.  Attendance and      motivation were high and the group
rated the sessions as very beneficial. The use of a      co-
facilitator who was a consumer with a disability was well received
by the groups      especially the African American groups.  The co-
facilitator was able to relate to and      share with the group in
a way that the "professional" facilitator could not.  Participants 
    indicated they liked the activities, exercises and the
participatory nature of the      activities.  The opportunity to
interact with others with similar needs and concerns was     
viewed positively by participants.  Participants in both the
African American and the      Latino groups provided job leads and
were very supportive of each other.  Some of the      participants
maintained contact with each other when the groups terminated.   2. 
 The needs and perceptions of the African American and Latino
groups differed.  For      example, the Latino participants
appeared to be in more need of information and      resources than
the African American participants.  This finding may be related to
the      relative disadvantaged status of some of the Latino
participants, many of whom were      fairly recent immigrants to
the Washington D.C. area.  Many Latinos reported their     
inability to speak English as their greatest barrier rather than
their disability.  The      manner in which Latinos an African
Americans perceived their disability differed.       Latino
participants minimized the impact of having a disability to a
greater extent than      their African American counterparts.  This
finding underscores the importance of      attending to ethnic and
cultural differences when implementing programs.  What works     
for one ethnic minority group may not work for another.  It is also
important to note      that minority groups are not homogeneous;
thus, what works for one Latino group may      not work for
another.  For example, the majority of the Latino participants in
our      project were immigrants with many challenges in addition
to having a disability (i.e.,      adapting to a new culture, lack
of English, housing and medical concerns). 3.   Initially,
participants seemed fairly powerless when the sessions began. 
While the      powerlessness may have been a related to low
socioeconomic status, it also could be      attributed to a lower
level of psychosocial competence.  Many participants did not feel 
    empowered and did not perceive that they had the necessary
skills and resources to      become successfully employed and to
handle stressful events in their lives.  However,      as the
groups progressed, it became evident that there was a desire to
acquire      employment skills and control of their lives.  This
was evident in their willingness to      work hard to obtain these
skills. 
4.   The effect of social support on both Latinos and African
Americans was significant.       The group process and experience
in and of itself provided a social support network      which was
useful in empowering the group. While one part of the intervention
was      designed to enhance the social support skills, the other
model of psychosocial      competence benefited the group by
providing social support as well.   5.   There were ethnic
differences in the manner in which the facilitators were perceived 
    and used.  Participants in the Latino groups seemed more
comfortable with the      facilitator assuming the role of leader,
teacher, etc., while participants in the African      American
groups were more likely to function in more of a collaborative
manner with      the facilitator.  This may reflect cultural
differences, and again, highlights the      importance of cultural
considerations in programs of this type.   6.   The intervention
was well received by the rehabilitation community.  The approach  
   used in the study complements the more individualized approach
to counseling and      services provided by rehabilitation
agencies.  
7.   Data were collected at the beginning and end of the program. 
The results of data      analyses reveal significant improvements
of participants in the intervention group      compared to a
comparison group.  


APPENDIX A
                         "Network Circle"
APPENDIX B
                    JOB HUNTING STRATEGY TIPS: 

              Develop a positive attitude.

              Remain consistent in job hunting activities and
efforts.

              Use all available resources to find a job:

                    Employment agencies, newspapers, churches,
library career                     planning centers, public radio
stations, public school or college                     personnel
offices, public bulletin boards, friends, neighbors, and          
          relatives.

              Understand the organization:

                    Type, size, hiring practices, product, service,
etc.

              Complete the entire application process:

                    Do not leave any blank spaces on the
application, tell the truth.

              Take time to identify the best method for applying
for that job or                approaching the job agency:

                    Contact employer by phone, mail your resume,
meet manager                     informally, or ask a friend to
hand deliver your resume.

              Follow up the written application:

                    Call the next week, write a thank you letter,
or send a follow up                     letter restating your
interest.

              Work on interview skills: Practice, practice, and
practice.

              Develop an alternative method of obtaining
employment:

                    Deliver groceries to senior citizens, start a
day care service, start                     a house cleaning
service, start a word processing service,                    
volunteer.

              Consider employment in jobs considered non-
traditional for your gender

         Tips for Keeping your job:

               Work to improve productivity; 

               Get rest and remain alert; 

               Understand all instructions before performing a
task;  

               Perform work thoroughly;

               Stay visible in organization; 

               Get to know your boss well; 

               Keep abreast of what is going on in the company,
division; department                and with the product or service
in the industry; 

               Dress like everyone else in your position; 

               Be cordial with your co-workers;

               Keep a positive attitude; and

               adhere to office etiquette at all times. 


                   Job Strategy: Dos and Don'ts

                               DO!

     Be confident!  Stand and sit as erect as you can.  Look the
interviewer in the eye and      shake hands with a firm grip.

              Look neat.  Wear the most professional clothing you
have.  Keep hair                and nails neat and clean.

              Divide the time.  Talk about yourself and the
company.  Ask questions                about the company.

              Learn about the company.  Read the company report. 
If you know                persons who work for the company, ask
them about the company.  Jot                down questions to ask
about the company.


              Treat the interviewer with respect.  Don't
interrupt him/her or appear                argumentative.

              Be on your very best personal behavior.

              Refrain from talking about salary on the first
interview.  If you think the                salary is close but
still low, remember you have a better chance of               
negotiating salary once you are offered employment.

                                 
                              DON'T

              Show signs of insecurity through weak hand shakes,
poor posture, or by                avoiding eye contact with the
interviewer.

              Look "sloppy" or unkempt in the interview.

              Appear uninterested by not knowing about the
company,                department/division, or position for which
you are interviewing.

              Talk the entire time about your needs, likes,
dislikes, and your demands.

              Constantly argue or agree with the interviewer.

              Show personal habits that may be considered
annoying or against the                company's codes (chewing
gum, biting nails, fidgeting, etc.).

              Make unrealistic high salary demands.

     

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press).  The influence of social support and active coping on
depression among African-Americans and Latinos with disabilities. 
Journal of Applied Community Psychology.

----------
End of Document


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