National Council on Disability Document Archive

Careers in Rehabilitation

Posted by: Jamal Mazrui
Date Mailed: Friday, July 18th 1997 07:12 PM

Careers in Rehabilitation

REHABILITATION-RELATED
PROFESSIONS
_______
AN OVERVIEW
April 1992
The contents of this publication were developed under a grant
from the Department of Education. However, those contents do not
necessarily represent the policy of the Department of Education,
and you should not assume endorsement by the Federal Government.


Rehabilitation-Related Professions


Foreword

     The decision you make regarding your future career may well
be the most important decision of your life. We are fortunate to
be members of a society which offers a vast array of career
choices and provides unlimited opportunities for satisfying and
challenging work futures.

     One career choice I would encourage you to consider is
Rehabilitation. Rehabilitation as an occupational/career path not
only offers attractive opportunities but provides the
satisfaction which comes from assisting and helping other
individuals improve their quality of life.

     This monograph contains information on 21
rehabilitation-related fields and 38 occupations. Information
regarding Educational/Certification Requirements, Job Duties,
Placement Opportunities, and Salary Ranges is provided.
Additional information regarding listed occupations can also be
obtained through the National Professional Organizations listed
in Appendix A of this publication.

     The Rehabilitation Services Administration (RSA), U.S.
Department of Education, provides financial support to colleges
and universities for training programs which focus on
rehabilitation-related professions.  In many instances, these
universities provide student financial support, including payment
of stipends, tuition, and fees.  Information regarding the
availability of student financial support can be obtained by
contacting the appropriate college or university.  Information
regarding RSA-funded college and university programs can be
obtained by contacting the appropriate RSA Regional Office listed
in Appendix B.

     We welcome your interest in Rehabilitation and your
exploration of career opportunities it offers by reading this
guide. There is an acute need for qualified personnel in this
rewarding field and you are invited to make further inquiry into
the employment possibilities.


Nell C. Carney
RSA Commissioner
OSERS/Department of Education
Washington, D.C.
Table of Contents



Foreword  i

Rehabilitation Counseling  1
Rehabilitation Counselor

Rehabilitation of the Blind                                     
2
 Orientation and Mobility Specialist
 Rehabilitation Teacher
 Rehabilitation Counselors for the Blind

Rehabilitation Administration                                   
3
 Rehabilitation Administrators

Rehabilitation Engineering                                      
4
 Rehabilitation Engineer
 Rehabilitation Technology Specialists

Rehabilitation of the Deaf                                      
5
 Deafness Rehabilitation Professional
 Rehabilitation Counselor for the Deaf
 Interpreter for the Deaf

Undergraduate Rehabilitation Education                          
6
 Rehabilitation Practitioners

Rehabilitation Facility Administration                          
7
 Rehabilitation Facility Administrator

Vocational Evaluation and Work Adjustment                       
8
 Vocational Evaluator
 Work Adjustment Specialist

Rehabilitation Facilities and Workshop Personnel                
9
 Rehabilitation Facility and Workshop Personnel

Job Development/Placement                                      
10
 Job Placement Specialists

Physical Therapy                                               
11
 Physical Therapist (PT)
 Physical Therapist Assistant (PTA)

Rehabilitation Medicine                                        
12
 Physiatrist
Supported Employment                                           
13
 Employment Specialists
 Job Coaches
 Job Training Specialists
 Job Development Specialists

Rehabilitation Psychology                                      
14
 Rehabilitation Psychologist

Occupational Therapy                                           
15
 Occupational Therapist (OTR)
 Occupational Therapy Assistant (COTA)

Speech Pathology/Audiology                                     
16
 Speech-Language Pathologist
 Audiologist

Rehabilitation Nursing                                         
17
 Rehabilitation Nurse

Independent Living                                             
18
 Independent Living Program Coordinator
 Independent Living Center Administrator

Client Assistance Programs                                     
19
 Attorneys
 Paralegal Professionals
 CAP Rehabilitation Advocates
 CAP Administrator

Prosthetics/Orthotics                                          
20
 Prosthetist
 Orthotist

Therapeutic Recreation                                         
21
 Therapeutic Recreation Specialist

Appendix A -- Additional Information Sources 


Appendix B -- R.S.A. Regional Offices
Rehabilitation Counseling

Educational Requirements
     The usual requirement for a position as a Rehabilitation
Counselor is a Master's degree.  To obtain a Master's degree in
Rehabilitation Counseling, most educational programs require 18
months to 2 years of academic coursework and 600 hours of
supervised clinical experience.  Graduate students generally have
undergraduate degrees in Rehabilitation Services, Psychology,
Sociology, or other human service fields.  Presently, there are
over 90 Master's degree programs in Rehabilitation Counseling in
the United States.  In some instances, these programs offer
student stipend support plus the payment of student fees and
tuition.  Other job titles for the Rehabilitation Counselor might
include Job Placement Specialist, Mental Health Counselor, Case
Manager or Vocational Counselor.

Certification Requirements
     A graduate of an accredited Rehabilitation Counselor
training program is eligible for certification by the Commission
on Rehabilitation Counselor Certification (CRCC) upon completion
of an approved internship and satisfactory performance on the
certification examination.  Although this certification is not
required for employment in most settings, it represents
professional recognition of an individual's education and
competencies.  Many states also offer certification for licensed
professional counselors (LPCs). 

Job Duties
     The Rehabilitation Counselor assists people with physically,
emotionally or mentally handicapping conditions to become
independent or remain self-sufficient employed citizens.  This
might include interviewing,  individual assessment, evaluation of
medical and psychological reports, vocational guidance, job
placement services, counseling and guidance for personal
adjustment, and work with individuals and organizations to
address and eliminate environmental and social barriers for
people with disabilities.

Placement Opportunities
     Rehabilitation Counselors may work in a wide variety of
settings including State Vocational Rehabilitation Agencies,
Independent Living Centers, Rehabilitation Facilities, Alcohol
and Drug programs, Mental Health Centers, private non-profit
rehabilitation agencies.  Many employment settings offer the
opportunity for counselors to specialize in working with certain
disability groups such as the Learning Disabled, Spinal Cord
Injured, Chronically Mentally Ill, Traumatic Head Injured,
Alcoholism and Drug Abuse, etc. 

Salary Ranges
     The average starting salary in the public sector is
estimated to be over $24,000, with a range of from $18,000 to
$34,000 per year.
Rehabilitation of the Blind

Educational Requirements
     Typically, Orientation and Mobility Specialist training is
offered at either an undergraduate or graduate level.  Completion
of these programs usually results in a Bachelors or Master's
Degree in Rehabilitation or Education with a major or emphasis in
Orientation and Mobility.  Presently, there are two undergraduate
and ten graduate programs in universities in the United States
that have been approved by the Association of Educators and
Rehabilitators of the Blind and Visually Impaired (A.E.R.). 
Rehabilitation Teacher training programs are typically at the
graduate level and in some instances, university graduate
training programs offer specialization in either Rehabilitation
Teaching or Orientation and Mobility.  Many agencies and
organizations also employ Rehabilitation Counselors for the
Blind.  Typically, these positions require a Bachelor's Degree in
Rehabilitation or related field with specialized training related
to the Blind and Visually Impaired, however, a Master's degree is
usually preferred.

Certification Requirements
     Graduates of approved university programs are eligible for
Rehabilitation Teaching or Orientation and Mobility Certification
from the Association of Educators and Rehabilitators of the Blind
and Visually Impaired (A.E.R.).  Rehabilitation Counselors for
the Blind are eligible for the same type of certification and
licensure as Rehabilitation Counselors.

Job Duties
     Graduates of Orientation and Mobility training programs
provide training to blind and visually impaired individuals in
methods of independent and safe travel.  Duties might include
interviewing, assessment, referrals and providing direct O & M
services.  Some opportunities are available in Low Vision Clinics
where graduates are responsible for assessing remaining vision
and determining appropriate visually training needs. 
Rehabilitation Teachers perform a wide variety of duties
including individual assessment, teaching of independent living
skills, activities of daily living, homemaking skills and
personnel management.  Rehabilitation Counselors for the Blind
perform a variety of duties in providing services to the Blind
and Visually Impaired (See Rehabilitation Counseling).

Placement Opportunities
     Rehabilitation Teachers and Orientation and Mobility
Specialists may work in state and private Rehabilitation Agencies
(including State Vocational Rehabilitation Agencies for the Blind
and Visually Impaired), Low Vision Clinics and Educational
Institutions.  In many instances, specialists may provide
services to the blind and visually impaired for facilities and
agencies on a contractual arrangement.  Rehabilitation Counselors
for the Blind are employed by State Rehabilitation Agencies for
the Blind and Visually Impaired and specialized programs,
facilities and workshops serving this population. 

Salary Ranges
     Typically, starting salaries for Rehabilitation Teachers,
Orientation and Mobility Specialists and Rehabilitation
Counselors for the Blind range from $20,000 to $30,000 per year. 
Starting salaries may be higher in some instances depending on
location and degree of specialization and training.
Rehabilitation Administration

Educational Requirements
     Rehabilitation Administrators are usually hired from
professional staff in such fields as rehabilitation counseling,
psychology, education, or business administration. Most
administrators obtain a Bachelor's degree, and often a Master's
degree, in a rehabilitation-related field before entering
management. To qualify for first-level, middle, and top
management positions, individuals may obtain additional education
such as a Master's degree in rehabilitation, business, or public
administration.  Individuals also increase their knowledge and
skills for administration through in-service and continuing
education.

Certification Requirements
     At the present time there are no certification requirements
for Rehabilitation Administrators. Administrators are generally
expected to have met the certification requirements required of
the professionals they supervise. A first-level supervisor of
rehabilitation counselors, for example, would be certified by the
Commission on Rehabilitation Counselor Certification (CRCC).

Job Duties
     Rehabilitation Administrators manage and direct a wide
variety of rehabilitation service programs.  Duties may include
planning, programming, operations and management, supervision and
human resource development, budgeting, information management,
reporting, program evaluation, research, and public relations. 
Rehabilitation Administrators must apply principles of business
and public administration, as well as program specific knowledge
on the functional and societal implications of disability, to
assure that rehabilitation programs achieve their missions of
assisting persons with disabilities in the most efficient and
effective ways possible.

Placement Opportunities
     Rehabilitation Administrators work in State and Federal
agencies, nonprofit organizations, educational institutions,
medical rehabilitation facilities, and private for=profit
rehabilitation businesses.  Many Rehabilitation Administrators
serve in managerial positions such as supervisor, Unit Director,
Planner, Human resource Development Director, District
Administrator, or Grants Manager.

Salary Ranges
     Starting salaries for Rehabilitation Administrators range
from $27,000 to $35,000 per year.


Rehabilitation Engineering

Educational Requirements
     Students who wish to become a Rehabilitation Engineer must
usually complete a two-year Master's degree program in
Rehabilitation Engineering.  Entrance to the Master's degree
program usually requires an appropriate undergraduate Engineering
degree (Biomedical Engineering, Electrical Engineering,
Industrial Engineering, Mechanical Engineering) as a
prerequisite.  This is typically a specialty area in a
traditional Engineering Master's degree program and can be a
thesis or non-thesis degree program.  Many programs include an
internship in a rehabilitation setting.  Approximately eight
universities have formal concentrations in Rehabilitation
Engineering.  Some programs offer student stipend support plus
the payment of student fees and tuition.

     Many agencies and programs now employ Rehabilitation
Technology Specialists.  While there is no specific education
educational requirement for these positions, these individuals
typically have a degree in Industrial Arts, Vocational Evaluation
or Counseling and/or a sufficient level of work experience,
specialized training and exposure in areas related to this field.

Certification Requirements
     At the present time, there are no certification requirements
for a Rehabilitation Engineer.  Graduates are encouraged to
become registered professional Engineers in the States where they
work.

     There are no certification requirements for Rehabilitation
Technology Specialists.

Job Duties
     Rehabilitation Engineers are involved with the design,
development and application of rehabilitative and assistive
technology to assist persons with disabilities in achieving
greater independence.  The typical Rehabilitation Engineer may be
involved as a team member addressing problems related to
wheelchairs and mobility, corrective postural positioning,
independent living, workplace modification, adaptive driving and
augmentative communication.  Whether one is working with
individuals or in a research facility, the Rehabilitation
Engineer is dedicated to increasing the personal independence and
functional capability of individuals who are disabled. 

Placement Opportunities
     The Rehabilitation Engineer may work in public or private
rehabilitation agencies, rehabilitation facilities, voluntary
organizations (such as United Cerebral Palsy and Easter Seals),
private industry or as a consultant.  Employment opportunities
are good and will continue to grow.

Salary Ranges
     Starting salaries for Rehabilitation Engineers typically
range from $30,000 to $35,000 per year.
Rehabilitation of the Deaf

Educational Requirements
     Many States now require a Master's Degree for employment as
a Deafness Rehabilitation Professional or a Rehabilitation
Counselor for the Deaf.  While many agencies may hire graduates
from general Rehabilitation Counselor training programs,
employment opportunities are greater for those who have graduated
from programs offering Master's degree specialization related to
deafness or deaf services.  Employment as an Interpreter for the
Deaf typically requires completion of at least an A.A., or
preferably a B.A. degree program in Interpreter Education.

Certification Requirements
     Deafness Rehabilitation Professionals are eligible for the
same type of  certifications as General Rehabilitation
Counselors.  These include CRC, NCC and other related
certifications.  Many States and programs are also implementing
Sign Language Proficiency evaluations to assist professionals to
develop and improve their skills in American Sign Language. 
While there are currently no certification requirements, national
certification or State screening levels for sign Language are
often stated as a hiring preference.  For Interpreters for the
Deaf, the preference is for national certification, which is
offered through the Registry of Interpreters for the Deaf, Inc.
(RID).  RID currently offers two national certifications:
Certificate of Interpretation (CI) or Certificate of
Transliteration (CT).  At the State level, approximately 30
States offer Quality Assurance Screening Tests (QAST) for
interpreters who are either not eligible for, or do not possess
national certification. 

Job Duties
     Job duties may include provision of assessment services,
vocational and adjustment counseling services, provision of
independent living skills training, interpreting services,
interpreter referral services, advocacy services and/or job
placement services.  A critical factor in success with this
population is the ability to communicate with clients in their
preferred mode.  This typically includes possessing competency in
American Sign Language as well as familiarity with the use of
various assistive listening devices.  Interpreters work directly
with individuals (including Deaf/Blind) and groups to facilitate
communication.

Placement Opportunities
     Deafness Rehabilitation Professionals may be employed in a
variety of settings including VR Agencies, Universities,
Rehabilitation Facilities, Mental Health settings, Independent
Living Agencies and Community Service Centers.  Interpreters
frequently work on a contract basis, however, opportunities for
full-time employment in agencies such as those listed above are
rapidly expanding.

Salary Ranges
     Starting salaries vary depending on the type of agency and
the region of the country.  The typical starting salary for a
Rehabilitation Counselor for the Deaf or Deafness Rehabilitation
Professional range from $18,000 to $30,000 per year.  Starting
salaries for Interpreters range from $15,000 to $25,000 per year,
or $15 to $30 per hour depending on certification credentials. 
Undergraduate Rehabilitation Education

Educational Requirements
     Individuals seeking employment as Rehabilitation
Practitioners should complete a four year university training
program which usually results in a Bachelor's Degree in
Rehabilitation, or there is a special emphasis in Rehabilitation
resulting in a B.S. or B.A. degree.  Frequently, students enter
an undergraduate rehabilitation training program with the
intention of eventually obtaining a Master's Degree in
Rehabilitation Counseling, Psychology or related areas.

     Presently, there are more than thirty-five undergraduate
rehabilitation programs in colleges in the United States. In some
instances, these programs offer student stipend support plus the
payment of student fees and tuition.

Certification Requirements
     At the present time there are no certification requirements
for the Bachelor's degree level Rehabilitation Practitioner.

Job Duties
     Employed graduates assist persons with disabilities in
achieving the greatest physical, mental, social, educational and
vocational potential of which they are capable.  Duties might
include coordinating the diagnosis and evaluation of the
handicapping condition, interviewing, individual planning,
arranging various rehabilitation services, assisting persons in
selecting a vocational goal, providing personal and social
adjustment services, job placement activities and providing
follow-up services to individuals after other services are
completed. 

Placement Opportunities
     Rehabilitation Practitioners may work in public and private
Rehabilitation Agencies (including State Vocational
Rehabilitation Agencies), Rehabilitation Facilities and Sheltered
Workshops, Mental Health and Mental Retardation Units, Evaluation
and Treatment Centers, Correctional Institutions and Agencies
(including Probation Departments), Voluntary Organizations,
Client Assistance Programs, Centers for Independent Living, or
private industry (including Personnel Departments of corporations
and Insurance Companies).

     Common job titles for this position include Rehabilitation
Specialist, Rehabilitation Technician, Vocational Caseworker,
Rehabilitation Aide or Technician, Vocational Evaluation
Technician, Alcohol and Drug Counselor, Personal Adjustment
Trainer, Work Adjustment Trainer, Job Placement Specialist, or
Employee Assistance Counselor.

Salary Ranges
     Starting salaries typically range from $18,000 to $25,000
per year. 
Rehabilitation Facility Administration

Educational Requirements
     The minimum educational requirement for a Rehabilitation
Facility Administrator is a Bachelor's degree in rehabilitation,
business, management, rehabilitation, public administration, or a
related field.  For positions in health care or medical
rehabilitation settings persons with degrees in nursing, physical
therapy or occupational therapy may be place in administrative
positions.

Certification Requirements
     At this time there are no national certification
requirements for rehabilitation facility administrators.  Some
nationally-based programs such as Goodwill Industries and Easter
Seal programs may require successful completion of specific
training programs conducted by the respective parent
organizations.  Some states have additional requirements for
rehabilitation facility administrators which may include a
Master's degree in rehabilitation facility administration, public
administration, business administration or related field.  In
some cases these requirements may be a prerequisite to
employment.

Job Duties
     Job responsibilities of rehabilitation facility
administrators will vary extensively depending on the focus of
the particular facility.  At a minimum, rehabilitation facility
administrators are responsible for planning and management
functions for programs, personnel, and fiscal operations. 
Administrators must have above average communication skills as
they are required to interact extensively with professional and
non-professional staff members, consumers, parents and families,
employers, other professionals within the community, and the
general public.  The administrator is frequently required to be
knowledgeable about and skilled in direct service areas provided
by the facility.  In medical facilities, administrators must be
able to effectively communicate with doctors, nurses, physical
and occupational therapists and other medical personnel.  The
administrator typically works closely with a board of directors
and is responsible for carrying out the goals and objectives
established by that group.

Placement Opportunities
     Rehabilitation facility administrators may work in any
setting in which vocational rehabilitation or independent living
services are the primary focus.  Examples of specific placement
sites include:  public rehabilitation programs, private
not-for-profit centers, hospitals, community mental health and
mental retardation centers, independent living centers, and
employment-based programs.

Salary Ranges
     Salaries for rehabilitation facility administrators vary
greatly depending on the size, type and location of the program
involved.  While salaries can reach levels over $60,000 per year,
entry level salaries for smaller facilities generally begin in
the $22,000 - $27,000 per year range.
Vocational Evaluation and Work Adjustment

Educational Requirements
     Minimum requirements for individuals seeking employment as a
Vocational Evaluator or as a Work Adjustment Specialist is a
bachelor's degree in Rehabilitation or a Bachelor's degree in a
closely related field with extensive approved work experience and
specialized training.  Individuals with masters degrees in their
respective specialty areas are preferred for both Vocational
Evaluators and Work Adjustment Specialists.

Certification Requirements
     Graduates of Vocational Evaluation specialization programs
may apply to the Commission on certification of Work Adjustment
and Vocational Evaluation Specialists (CCWAVES) for national
certification as a Certified Vocational Evaluator.  The CVE is
awarded to individuals having competence in the essential
performance areas as demonstrated by education, training and
professional experience, as well as a national certification
examination administered by CCWAVES.  CCWAVES also administers
certification for Certified Work Adjustment (CWA).  Currently,
testing for CWA has been suspended pending update of the
examination.  Professionals possessing CWA credentials are
allowed to maintain their certification.  While most States do
not have licensure or other specific credentials for Vocational
Evaluators or Work Adjustment Specialists, they may rely on the
CVA and CWA as a standard for professional qualifications. The
Commission on Accreditation of Rehabilitation Facilities (CARF)
requires the CVE when certifying programs in vocational
evaluation.

Job Duties
     Vocational Evaluation is a comprehensive process of
vocational exploration and assessment designed to assist
individuals in identifying their vocational options.  The
vocational evaluator must have an understanding of a variety of
physical and mental disabilities and must have above average
communication skills.  Evaluators are responsible for selecting,
administering and interpreting a wide assortment of evaluation
instruments including psychometric tests, commercial work sample
systems, and situational assessments.  They are frequently
required to modify standard instruments or to develop new
instruments in order to effectively respond to local labor
markets or accommodate individual needs.  Work Adjustment
Specialists provide services focusing on the development and
implementation of systematic, individualized treatment/training
programs for persons with disabilities.  Adjustment Specialists
must be able to establish effective helping relationships with a
wide variety of persons with disabilities and must posses skills
in behavior change techniques, individual and group counseling,
instructional techniques, job development, job placement and
community integration.

Placement Opportunities
     Vocational Evaluators and Work Adjustment Specialists may be
employed in any setting that concentrates on Integration of
persons with disabilities into the community workplace.  Primary
examples of employment settings include:  state vocational
rehabilitation agencies, private rehabilitation companies,
community Independent Living Centers, psychiatric and addiction
treatment centers, head injury treatment centers, hospitals,
public schools, mental health and retardation programs, sheltered
workshops and work activity centers, correctional facilities and
university-based programs.

Salary Ranges
     Starting salaries for CVEs typically range from $23,000 to
$30,000 per year and starting salaries for CWA's range from
$20,000 to $25,000 per year.  Individuals with bachelor's degrees
in these areas may expect a starting salary between $15,000 and
$20,000 per year.
Rehabilitation Facilities and Workshop Personnel

Educational Requirements
     Rehabilitation facilities provide employment opportunities
for individuals with and without advanced educational degrees. 
Rehabilitation Facility and Workshop Personnel include
Administrators, Counselors, Vocational Evaluators and Work
Adjustment Specialists.  While these professional positions
typically require a Master's degree, some may be filled by
individuals with a bachelors degree in rehabilitation or a
closely related field along with approved work experience and
specialized training.  Other positions requiring a bachelors
degree include case manager, job developer and placement
specialist, vocational evaluation aide, production supervisor,
and skills trainer.  Para-professional positions within
facilities and workshops include job coach, job readiness
trainer, and floor supervisor.  These positions may require two
years of college, approved work experience, or specialized
training.

Certification Requirements
     Certification requirements for Certified Rehabilitation
Counselors, Vocational Evaluators, and Work Adjustment
Specialists are described in the sections on these
specializations.  With the exception of these professional areas,
there are no specific certification requirements for the facility
and workshop positions identified above.  However, many
facilities require employees in these positions to maintain
continuing education credits for job retention.

Job Duties
     Please refer to the sections on rehabilitation counselling
vocational evaluation and work adjustment, and rehabilitation
facility administration for descriptions of duties directly
related to these areas.  Other workshop and facility personnel
are responsible for a wide range of activities directly related
to preparing individuals with disabilities for employment and
integration into the community.  While primary responsibilities
vary among positions, all personnel must be skilled in: 
developing and maintaining interpersonal relationships,
techniques of behavior management and change, individual and
group instruction, and client supervision.  Other duties include
job development, job placement and workaday modification. 
Facility personnel engage in extensive interaction with the
business community and must be knowledgeable of and responsive to
the needs of the employer.

Placement Opportunities
     Facilities, group homes, sheltered workshops and community
integration programs are the primary employment sites for
individuals competent in the areas described above. 
Rehabilitation workshops and facilities typically focus on the
vocational and social development of persons with developmental
disabilities.  Other programs specialize in meeting the
employment needs of psychiatric clients or persons with physical
disabilities.  Because of the interest and/or need that all
people have in employment, the knowledge and skills of
rehabilitation workshop and facility personnel can frequently be
transferable to such employment settings as psychiatric and
medical hospitals, addiction treatment programs, public schools
and correctional facilities.

Salary Ranges
     Salary ranges for counselors, evaluators and adjustment
specialists and facility administrators are listed in separate
sections.  Persons with bachelors degrees can anticipate starting
salaries from $15,000 to $22,000 for direct service positions in
rehabilitation facilities and workshops.  Non-degreed positions
are currently advertised in the $13,500 to $15,500 range.
Job Development/Placement

Educational Requirements
     Individuals seeking employment as Job Placement Specialists
should complete a master's degree in Rehabilitation with special
emphasis in Job Placement.

Certification Requirements
     At the present time there are no certification requirements
for the Job Placement Specialist.

Job Duties
     The Job Placement Specialist takes referrals of
placement-ready clients from rehabilitation counselors and
provides placement services to assist clients in finding jobs
identified on the Individualized Written Rehabilitation Program. 
The Job Placement Specialist provides following services to
clients based upon need: Resume' development, job seeking skills
training, and post employment follow-up.  Other client services
may include training clients to conduct informational interviews,
supervising the practice of interviewing skills, assisting
clients in finding job openings, and as well as coordinating
accommodations for clients when they go for interviews. 
Placement specialists may also coordinate and supervise job
clubs.

     Job Placement Specialists are also involved in employer
consultation.  Employer services include teaching employers about
financial incentives to hiring persons with disabilities,
demonstrating accommodation technology available, consulting with
Human Resources Departments on their hiring practices and working
with front line supervisors to eliminate prejudices toward
persons with disabilities.  The purpose of the employer
consultation is to increase the availability of job opportunities
for clients with disabilities.

Placement Opportunities
     Job Placement Specialists work in public and private
Rehabilitation Agencies including State Vocational Rehabilitation
Agencies, Rehabilitation Facilities, Sheltered Workshops, and
Community Mental Health and Mental Retardation Programs.

Salary Ranges
     Starting salaries typically range from $20,000 to $35,000
per year.
Physical Therapy

Educational Requirements
     To become a licensed Physical Therapist (PT), you must
graduate from one of the accredited physical therapy education
programs located in colleges and universities throughout the
United States.  To enter the entry-level master's degree programs
you must have a Baccalaureate degree in another area and have
completed the required prerequisite courses; however, some
programs offer a Baccalaureate degree in physical therapy. 
Admission is competitive.  Courses include human anatomy,
neuroscience, and medical kinesiology as well as the theory and
practice of physical therapy;  students must also complete
internships in clinical facilities.  To become a Physical
Therapist Assistant (PTA), you must complete an accredited
two-year Associate degree program.  Most of these programs are
located in junior/community colleges.

Certification Requirements
     All 50 States have licensure requirements.  Upon completion
of an accredited education program, you are eligible to apply for
a license in the state(s) where you wish to practice.  All states
require a national licensure examination, but the passing score
and other requirements vary from state to state.  some states
require that the Physical Therapist Assistant be licensed also.

Job Duties
     Physical therapists are key members of medical teams,
evaluating and treating persons who through accident, illness, or
birth defect are injured or disabled.  Physical therapists treat
a wide variety of patients including:  orthopedic, pediatric,
geriatric, and neurologic.  Types of treatment include
therapeutic exercise, massage, manipulations, and the application
of heat, cold, electrotherapy, and ultrasound.  Physical
therapists also plan, administer, and evaluate rehabilitation
services and provide consultative and educational services. 
Physical Therapist Assistants practice under the supervision of
Physical Therapists.

Placement Opportunities
     Employment opportunities for qualified physical therapists
are excellent.  The U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics projects that
the demand for physical therapists will rise by over 87 percent
by the year 2000.  Physical therapists practice in school
settings, private practices, sports rehabilitation centers,
nursing homes, home health agencies, and industry, as well as the
more traditional acute care settings such as hospitals and
rehabilitation centers.  Career opportunities are also available
in administration, research, and teaching.

Salary Ranges
     Starting salaries for Physical Therapists range from $28,000
to 38,000 per year depending on the location of employment and
type of practice.  Many employers offer additional benefits such
as paying for licensure fees, professional association dues, and
continuing education expenses.
Rehabilitation Medicine

Educational Requirements
     Physicians skilled in rehabilitation medicine, or
Physiatrist as they are identified in the field of medicine, are
graduates of an accredited School of Medicine or School of
Osteopathic Medicine.  Physiatrist complete an accredited
residency training program in physical medicine and
rehabilitation.  Physiatrist who want to teach or do research may
take graduate work leading to a master's or PH.D. degree in a
field such as biochemistry or biomedical engineering.

Certification Requirements
     Physiatrist are certified by the american Board of Physical
Medicine and Rehabilitation.  In 1990, there were 3,454 total
board certified physiatrist.

Job Duties
     Physiatrist provide rehabilitation medical care to persons
who require assistance to maximize physical functional capacity
that is limited by the consequences of injury, disease, or
congenital disorder.  Physiatrist team with other physicians and
rehabilitation professionals such as nurses, physical therapists,
occupational therapists, psychologists, prosthetists, and
orthotists to provide interdisciplinary care that increases
functional abilities of persons with disability in self-care,
mobility, vocational rehabilitation, and other activities of
daily living.  Some physiatrist serve as faculty in
rehabilitation medicine and conduct research to improve
rehabilitation processes and outcomes.

Placement Opportunities
     Physiatrist work in hospitals, medical rehabilitation
facilities, private and public rehabilitation agencies or
offices, research centers, and in colleges and universities,
including medical schools.  Physiatrist may pursue two or more
years of post-residency fellowship training in neuromuscular
diseases, spinal cord injury, brain injury, or related
specialties.

Salary Ranges
     Residents may receive $30,000 to $70,000 per year.  Starting
salaries for Physiatrist range widely, but are comparable with
those of new Internists and General Physicians at $90,000 to
$120,000 per year.
Supported Employment

Educational Requirements
     Supported Employment is a new rehabilitation service option
that offers many career opportunities.  It is not a profession,
but is a service that is provided to many individuals with
disabilities.  Supported Employment is defined as "competitive
work in integrated work settings (a) for individuals with severe
disabilities for whom competitive employment has not
traditionally occurred, or (b) for individuals for whom
competitive employment has been interrupted or intermittent as a
result of a severe disability, and who, because of their
disability, need on-going support services to perform such work." 
Supported Employment programs employ Employment Specialists or
Job Coaches and in some instances Job Training Specialists and
Job Development Specialists.  Presently, there are no educational
requirements for the position of Employment Specialist, although
many colleges and universities are offering Bachelor or Master's
program with emphasis in supported employment.  Hiring
organizations often indicate a preference for individuals who
possess a Bachelor's degree in Rehabilitation, Special Education,
or a related field.

Certification Requirements
     There are no certification requirements for the positions
listed above.  Training programs are available which offer
certificates, but there is no established set of criteria which
govern competencies or skill requirements on a national scale. 
Competency information from a variety of sources is available
from the Association for Persons in Supported Employment (APSE). 
See Appendix A for more information.

Job Duties
     Employment Specialists (job coaches) provide assistance to
individuals engaged in Supported Employment.  In the majority of
cases, employment assistance is provided on-the-job-site and
includes the use of systematic training of job and work related
skills.  Employment Specialists provide long-term support to
employed clients assisting them in maintaining employment. 
Assistance is very intense in the initial stages of employment,
with gradual fading of intervention over time.  The Employment
Specialist assists the employee and employer in developing a
natural pattern of interaction for the long-term employment
relationship.  In most cases, the Employment Specialist
implements all phases of the Supported Employment activity for a
given client, i.e., consumer assessment, job development,
placement, training, and long-term follow-along.  In some cases,
the position is split between a Job Trainer and Job Developer in
which case the Trainer concentrates on training individual
clients in job and related skills, while the Developer focuses on
developing new job sites.

Placement Opportunities
     Supported Employment personnel work in many different job
settings.  According to national data, most supported employment
programs are operated out of sheltered workshop or other
rehabilitation facilities.  In other instances, Employment
Specialists are employed by state vocational rehabilitation
agencies, public schools, and organizations established for the
sole purpose of provided supported employment services.

Salary Ranges
     Earnings are highly variable, according to work setting and
geographic location.  Salaries for state agency and public sector
Employment Specialists range from $15,000 to $30,000 per year. 
The skills and knowledge required to perform effectively as an
Employment Specialist are diverse.  Creative problem solving and
resourcefulness are critical.  Employment Specialists learn a
great about related human service systems and therefore gain
access to opportunities for advancement and other career
opportunities.  Starting salaries for Job Coaches typically range
from $6 to $12 per hour.
Rehabilitation Psychology

Educational Requirements
     The minimum educational requirement for a Rehabilitation
Psychologist is a Master's degree in Rehabilitation, Clinical,
Counseling or Educational Psychology.  A Doctoral degree is
preferred, however, with emphasis in the areas listed above. 
Some Doctoral programs have a Rehabilitation, Behavioral
Medicine/Health Psychology, or Neuropsychology emphasis.  If a
program does not have such an emphasis, the internship can be
chosen such that the above specialties are an integral component. 
There are also Doctoral programs in Rehabilitation and
Rehabilitation Counseling.  Rehabilitation Services
Administration (RSA) funds grants in the field of Rehabilitation
Psychology to support pre-service training programs designed to
increase the number of qualified personnel providing specialized
psychological and assessment services in public and private
nonprofit or related rehabilitation agencies and facilities.

Certification Requirements
     In terms of independent practice, Psychologists can obtain
certification and licensure by the State in which one would
practice.  In some States, there are Master's level licensure
laws that permit independent practice. Most States have a
certification process for Master's level Psychologists with a
requirement that they be employed and supervised by a Licensed
Psychologist.  In addition, many States have a provision whereby
no certification or licensure is required if the individual is
employed by an "exempt" agency, i.e., Hospital, Government
Service Agency, University, etc.  Many exempt agencies, however,
may require certification and licensure as a prerequisite to
employment.

Job Duties
     Rehabilitation Psychologists perform psychological,
neuropsychological, vocational and/or clinical evaluation of
persons with disability to determine strengths and weaknesses
that may affect long-term personal, social and vocational
adjustment and adaptation to disability.  In addition, such
information may contribute to treatment, interdisciplinary
planning and/or to disability determination. 
Counseling/Psychotherapy may also be performed to assist persons
to cope with disability and daily living issues.  In the academic
area, university faculty positions are available and in demand. 
In such positions, duties involve teaching and supervision of
clinical and research work by students.  Independent clinical
work and research may also be performed in the academic setting.

Placement Opportunities
     Rehabilitation Psychologists may work in a wide variety of
settings including public and private Rehabilitation Centers,
Hospitals, Psychiatric or Head Injury Treatment Centers, State
Institutions, Community Mental Health Centers and Academic
Institutions.

Salary Ranges
     Typically, the starting salary for Master's degree entry
level employment is $20,000 to $30,000 per year.  The starting
salary for Doctoral level entry employment is $30,000 per year
and higher.
Occupational Therapy

Educational Requirements
     To become a registered Occupational Therapist (OTR), you
must graduate from one of the numerous Occupational Therapy
educational programs located in colleges and universities
throughout the United States. Most programs offer a Baccalaureate
degree; however, if you already have a Baccalaureate degree in a
related field, you may be eligible for an entry-level Master's
degree or certificate program offered by some schools.  The
course content for each type of program focuses on biological and
behavioral sciences, human growth and development and
Occupational Therapy theory and practice. All programs require a
period of supervised clinical experience.  To become a certified
Occupational Therapy Assistant (COTA), you must complete an
approved educational program. The majority of these are two-year
Associate degree programs in community colleges. The program
includes courses in the structure and function of the human body,
Psychology, Occupational Therapy principles and techniques and a
period of supervised clinical experience. 

Certification Requirements
     Upon completion of the educational requirements to be an
Occupational Therapist or an Occupational Therapy Assistant, you
are eligible to take the national certification examination
administered by the American Occupational Therapy Certification
Board.  In addition, most of the States require that you be
licensed to practice.  To become licensed, you must present proof
of successful completion of the certification examination and pay
a fee which varies from State to State.

Job Duties
     Occupational Therapists employed in rehabilitation centers,
facilities, or hospitals may design and construct splints for
injury victims, plan and supervise a program of activities to
assist those recovering from a stroke, or monitor the heart rate
and energy requirements of heart patients as they practice
self-care or homemaking activities.  Occupational Therapists
working with the mentally ill may be responsible for group or
individual treatment activities designed to help individuals
learn personal or social behavior skills.  Typically,
Occupational Therapists work with individuals representing
practically all disability groups.  As an employed Occupational
Therapist you may provide services to patients of all ages with
physical, developmental, and emotional problems.

Placement Opportunities
     Future employment is especially bright for those who choose
a career in Occupational Therapy.  According to a report by the
U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Therapy is one of the
fastest growing health professions, with career opportunities in
administration, research and education, as well as direct patient
treatment.  Occupational Therapists work in a variety of
rehabilitation-related settings including rehabilitation centers,
hospitals and facilities.  As a registered OT or OT Assistant you
may have a private practice or work, and provide consultation to
nursing homes, public and private schools, or Home Health
Agencies.

Salary Ranges
     In 1991, starting salaries for Registered Occupational
Therapists typically ranged from $29,000 to $31,000 per year. 
Starting salaries for OT Assistants typically ranged from $19,000
to $21,000 per year.
Speech Pathology/Audiology

Educational Requirements
     Employment as a certified Speech-Language Pathologist or a
certified Audiologist requires a Master's degree which can be
obtained from the numerous universities and colleges which offer
Communication Disorders programs or Audiology programs.  In a
small number of States, non-certified Audiologists and
Speech-Language Pathologists can practice with a Bachelor's
degree.  Admission criteria, course requirements and tuition vary
from program to program, therefore, interested students are
encouraged to contact the university of their choice to obtain
specific information.  All programs include course work as well
as supervised clinical practicums.  In Speech-Language Pathology,
course work focuses on normal and impaired articulation,
language, swallowing, cognition and voice.  In clinical
practicums, students will be involved in evaluation and treatment
of patients with deficits in these areas.  In Audiology, course
work focuses on anatomy and function of the ear, fitting and
selection of hearing aids, diagnostic testing and calibration and
use of audiological equipment.  In clinical practicums, students
will be involved in evaluation of patients with possible hearing
impairments. 

Certification Requirements
     To become certified in each of these fields, you must have a
Master's degree, pass the American Speech Language and Hearing
Association certification examination and complete and meet the
requirements of a clinical fellowship year (CFY).  Most States
also have license requirements.  In these states you must present
proof of certification and pay a fee.  A separate license and
certification examination is needed to dispense hearing aids.

Job Duties
     Speech-Language Pathologists and Audiologists work with
infants to adults with a variety of speech, language, voice,
swallowing, cognitive, and hearing deficits.  Speech-Language
Pathologists are responsible for evaluation, goal setting,
treatment implementation, patient and family education and
re-integration of patients.  The goal is to improve patient
skills so they may function in their environment to the best of
their ability.  They work with patients who have a variety of
diagnoses which include strokes, brain injuries, degenerative
diseases, learning disabilities, attention deficit disorders, and
many others.  Audiologists work closely with Otolaryngologists
and Ear, Nose and Throat Specialists.  The goal is to obtain a
clear picture of hearing status and make recommendations for
hearing aids or follow-up medical treatment. 

Placement Opportunities
     Speech-Language Pathologists and Audiologists work in
hospitals, private and public clinics, Rehabilitation Centers,
Nursing Homes, Home Health Agencies, Contract Agencies, private
practices and public/private schools and universities.

Salary Ranges
     Starting salaries for Speech-Language Pathologists typically
range from $20,000 to $33,000.  Starting salaries for
Audiologists typically range from $21,000 to $34,000.  Starting
salaries vary based on level of education, location and type of
facility or practice.
Rehabilitation Nursing

Educational Requirements
     A registered nurse's license is necessary to become a
professional Rehabilitation Nurse.  To meet licensure educational
requirements, the candidate must complete a baccalaureate,
diploma, or associate degree program.  While associate and
diploma programs are acceptable, the trend is toward the
baccalaureate degree as the preferred entry-level degree.  Some
nurses do go on to earn Master's and Doctoral degrees in
Rehabilitation Nursing.

Certification Requirements
     While certification is not required to practice
Rehabilitation Nursing, it is available.  Nurses with two years
experience in Rehabilitation Nursing are eligible to take the
certification examination.  Successful completion of the
examination leads to the prestigious Certified Rehabilitation
Registered Nurse (CRRN) credential.

Job Duties
     Rehabilitation Nurses often play a very important role as a
member of the inter-disciplinary team, working cooperatively with
Rehabilitation Counselors, Social Workers, Occupational and
Physical Therapists and Physiatrist.  Rehabilitation Nurses begin
to work with individuals and their families soon after disabling
injury or chronic illness strikes, and they are still there after
the individuals go home and back to school to work.  During that
time, Rehabilitation Nurses help these people make the most of
there abilities.  They accomplish this goal lay educating,
motivating, and working with individuals and their families,
friends, and employers.  They also coordinate funding sources and
community assistance programs.

Placement Opportunities
     There are many excellent placement opportunities in the
field of Rehabilitation Nursing.  Rehabilitation Nurses practice
in a variety of settings, including rehabilitation centers,
hospitals, long-term care facilities, nursing homes, clinics,
community and governmental agencies, insurance corporations, and
private companies.

Salary Ranges
     According to a 1991 survey done by the Association of
Rehabilitation Nurses, entry level salaries can average $15.16
per for a staff nurse, $31,667 for an insurance rehabilitation
nurse, and $40,093 for management-level rehabilitation nurses.
Independent Living

Educational Requirements
     For employment as a Independent Living Program Coordinator
in a Center for Independent Living, a Bachelors degree in
Rehabilitation, Business Administration or Liberal Arts is
preferred, but not required.  In some instances, knowledge of
disabilities, community resources, independent living philosophy,
and specific job skills for a position may substitute for formal
education.  Typically, these educational requirements also apply
to the position of Independent Living Center Administrator,
however, in most instances administrative experience and/or
extensive work experience in a Center for Independent Living is
required for this position. 

Certification Requirements
     At the present time, there are no certification requirements
for working in an Independent Living Center as an Independent
Living Program Coordinator or as an Administrator of an
Independent Living Center.  In most instances, preference is
given to persons with disabilities who can perform key elements
of a position, or who can perform essential duties after
receiving short-term training.

Job Duties
     Independent Living Program Coordinators will generally be
involved in developing independent living plans, case management,
information and referral, advocacy, skills training, counseling,
social/recreational activities, community outreach, and
activities related to the needs of consumers such as housing,
accessibility, transportation, employment, personal care services
and assistive services such as interpreters, readers, etc. 

     Administrators of Independent Living Centers perform a
variety of duties relating to personnel management, program
administration, planning, evaluation, public relations, community
outreach, advocacy, fund raising, grant writing, training and
other duties assigned by the Board of Directors. 

Placement Opportunities
     Independent living centers are local community based cross
disability advocacy organizations.  In order to qualify for
federal/state funding, ILCs must have a governing body made up of
at least 51% persons with disabilities, must serve a wide
spectrum of disabilities, and offer at a minimum the services of
information and referral, peer counseling, independent living
skills training and advocacy.  The number of centers and the
number of positions available are continuing to grow and expand
each year.  Generally, ILCs are located in both rural and urban
areas.

Salary Ranges
     Typically, starting salaries for CIL Administrators range
from $25,000 to $30,000 per year, and the starting salaries for
CIL Program Coordinators range from $17,000 to 20,000 per year.
Client Assistance Programs

Educational Requirements
     Client Assistance Programs (CAPs) vary in structure all over
the country and the roles and activities of these programs
reflect the various orientations of the program settings.  For
example, some CAPs are administered by legal offices and the CAP
Staff may be Attorneys, or they may be Paralegal Professionals. 
Most programs also employ CAP Rehabilitation Advocates who have
Rehabilitation or Social Science degrees.  Many CAPs hire
Master's Degree level professionals, whereas other CAPs hire
people with a combination of undergraduate degrees and employment
experience in the rehabilitation/disability field.

     Educational requirements for the position of CAP
Administrator vary considerably, with some CAPs requiring a
degree in Law.

Certification Requirements
     There are no formal certification requirements for CAP. 
Many people who are employed in CAPs, however, maintain
certifications in their respective fields.

Job Duties
     CAP Rehabilitation Advocates and CAP Paralegal Professionals
provide individual client services (information/referral,
counseling and advice regarding rights relative to rehabilitation
services, mediation and negotiation with service providers,
assistance with administrative appeals to resolve grievances, and
access to legal services as needed).  CAP personnel also conduct
outreach and training activities, write position papers and
advocate for policy changes with rehabilitation service
administrators.

     CAP Administrators perform a variety of management duties
and some have responsibility to consumer advisory committees and
boards.  Most CAP professionals are expected to have skills in
public speaking, writing, group work, and a solid knowledge base
in disability issues.  Since CAP is called upon to advocate for
change, a commitment to consumer empowerment and community
integration of persons with disabilities is a plus.  Some states
have very small programs due to the size of their allotment.  In
these states, the CAP may only have one professional staff
member.

Placement Opportunities
     Each State has a Client Assistance Program funded by the
Rehabilitation Services Administration, U.S. Department of
Education.  Each of these programs offer a variety of positions
such as those outlined above.

Salary Ranges
     Typically, starting salaries for CAP Rehabilitation
Advocates and CAP Paralegal Professionals range from $20,000 to
$30,000 per year.  Starting salaries for CAP Administrators and
Attorneys typically range from $25,000 to $35,000 per year
depending on background and work experience.
Prosthetics/Orthotics

Educational Requirements
     Individuals seeking employment as a Prosthetist or Orthotist
must obtain a Bachelor's degree in Prosthetics-Orthotics or a
Bachelor's degree in a related field plus completion of a
long-term (four and one half to twelve month) certificate
program.  The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at
Dallas offers a fully accredited two-year upper division
curriculum which leads to a Bachelor of Science degree in
Prosthetics-Orthotics.  The course of study consists of two
phases: a prerequisite phase and a professional phase.  During
the prerequisite phase the student completes required and
elective courses in physical sciences, biological sciences and
liberal arts.  The professional phase is completed on campus. 
This portion of the curriculum offers the student courses in
related sciences, professional skills and technical skills.  A
coordinated approach to the academic and clinical aspects of the
student's education reinforces the basic skills necessary for
entry level positions. 

Certification Requirements
     Students completing all program requirements, are awarded a
Bachelor of Science degree and a certificate in Prosthetics and
Orthotics.  Upon completion of a Bachelor's degree in
Prosthetics-Orthotics or a certificate program, graduates are
then required to complete 1900 hours (approximately one year) of
clinical experience under the guidance of a certified
practitioner in one of the two disciplines.  This qualifies them
to sit for certification in accordance with regulations of the
American Board for Certification in Orthotics and Prosthetics,
Inc. (ABC).  Upon successful completion of one board examination,
the candidate becomes either a certified Prosthetist or
Orthotist.  Once both board examinations are passed, the
candidate becomes a certified Prosthetist-Orthotist.

Job Duties
     A certified Prosthetist-Orthotist provides care to persons
requiring the replacement of a partially or totally absent
extremity (prosthesis) or the fitting of a brace (orthosis) to a
disabled spine or extremity. Professional practice includes
assessment of patient needs, prescription recommendation,
fabrication, fitting and evaluation of the prosthesis or
orthosis.  Functioning in the clinical setting as an active
member of the professional health-care team, the
Prosthetist-Orthotist collaborates with team members to provide
rehabilitation for patients with disabling illnesses and injuries
or birth defects.  The Prosthetist-Orthotist is also responsible
for educating the patient, their families, other health-care
professionals and the public about Prosthetics and Orthotics.

Placement Opportunities
     Students with a degree in Prosthetics-Orthotics are employed
nationwide and generally have employment offers prior to
graduation.  Clinical exposure in both disciplines during school
enhances the students' professional ability and gives them the
opportunity to increase their skill level throughout their
residency.

Salary Ranges
     Starting salaries for residents typically range from $25,000
to $29,000 per year.
Therapeutic Recreation

Educational Requirements
     Individuals wishing to obtain employment as a Therapeutic
Recreation Specialist traditionally earn a Bachelor's degree in
Therapeutic Recreation.  Masters and Doctoral programs are
available.  Academic coursework addresses such areas as
Therapeutic Recreation philosophy, recreation foundations,
administration, psychology, physical sciences and other related
subjects.

Certification Requirements
     Certification as a Therapeutic Recreation Specialist (CTRS)
is offered through the National Council for Therapeutic
Recreation Certification (NCTRC).  This is a nationally
recognized organization for the field.  Applicants for
certification must meet educational standards to be eligible to
sit for the national examination.  This is a voluntary
credentialing program, but is required in most professional
Therapeutic Recreation jobs.  Several states require state
licensure or certification beyond the national credential.

Job Duties
     Persons employed as Therapeutic Recreation Specialists work
towards the independent leisure functioning of persons with a
wide variety of disabling conditions including physical, mental,
social, and emotional.  They facilitate a holistic process of
treatment to bring clients through a continuum of leisure
proficiency.  The Therapeutic Recreation professional provides
individual therapy, leisure education, community integration,
leisure values clarification and the opportunity to participate
in quality leisure activities.  It is intended that through the
acquisition of leisure skills that a person can experience a
higher quality of life and independent functioning.

Placement Opportunities
     Therapeutic Recreation Specialists are employed in a variety
of rehabilitation and community settings including Municipal Park
and Recreation Departments, Psychiatric or Head Injury Treatment
Centers,  Correctional Facilities, Camps, State Institutions,
public and private Comprehensive Rehabilitation Centers,
Community Mental Health Centers and Independent Living
Facilities.

Salary Ranges
     Starting salaries for Therapeutic Recreation Specialists
typically range from $23,000 to $25,000 per year.



Additional Information Sources




Rehabilitation CounselingNational Council on Rehabilitation
Education
                                   Department of Special
Education
Utah State University
Logan, UT  84322-2870
801-750-3241


Rehabilitation of the BlindAssociation for Education &
Rehabilitation 
of the Blind & visually Impaired (AER)
206 N. Washington St., Suite 320
Alexandria, VA  22314-2528
703-548-1884


Rehabilitation AdministrationNational Rehabilitation Association
(NRA)
ATTN:  National Rehabilitation 
Administration Association (NRAA)
1910 Association Drive, Suite 205
Reston, VA  22091
703-715-9090


Rehabilitation Engineering                                  
RESNA
National Office, Suite 700
1101 Connecticut Avenue, N.W.
Washington, D.C.  20036-4303
202-857-1199


Rehabilitation of the DeafChief Deafness and Communicative
Disorders Branch
Office of Program Operations
Rehabilitation Services Administration, OSERS
U.S. Department of Education, MES Building
330 "C" Street S.W
Washington, D.C.
202-732-1322


Undergraduate Rehabilitation EducationNational Council on Rehab.
Education
Department of Special Education
Utah State University
Logan, Utah  84322-2870
801-750-3241

Rehabilitation Facility
 AdministrationNational Association of Rehabilitation Facilities
(NARF)
                                                   P. O. Box
17675
                                           Washington, D.C. 
20041
                                                    (703)
648-9300


Vocational Evaluation and 
 Work AdjustmentNational Association of Rehabilitation Facilities
(NARF)
                                                   P. O. Box
17675
                                           Washington, D.C. 
20041
                                                    (703)
648-9300


Rehabilitation Facilities and
 Workshop PersonnelNational Association of Rehabilitation
Facilities (NARF)
                                                   P. O. Box
17675
                                           Washington, D.C. 
20041
                                                    (703)
648-9300


Job Placement Specialist                    Job Placement
Division
National Rehabilitation Association
1910 Association Drive, Suite 205
Reston, VA  22091-1502
703-715-9090


Physical Therapy      American Physical Therapy Association
(APTA)
1111 North Fairfax St.
Alexandria, VA  22314
1-800-999-2782 or 
703-684-2782


Rehabilitation Medicine      American Academy of Physical
Medicine
                                                and
Rehabilitation
122 South Michigan Avenue, Suite 1300
Chicago, IL  60603-6107
312-922-9366


Supported EmploymentAssociation for Persons in Supported
Employment (APSE)
5001 West Broad Street, Suite 34
Richmond, VA  23230
804-282-3655

Rehabilitation Psychology American Psychological Association
(APA)
750 First Street, N.E.
Washington D.C.  20002-4242
202-336-5500


Occupational TherapyThe American Occupational Therapy
Association, Inc
1383 Piccard Drive
Rockville, MD  20849-1725
301-948-9626


Speech Pathology/AudiologyAmerican Speech & Hearing Association
(ASHA)
10801 Rockville Pike
Rockville, MD  20852
1-800-638-6868 or
301-897-5700


Rehabilitation NursingThe Association of Rehabilitation Nurses
(ARN)
5700 Old Orchard Road First Floor
Skokie, IL  60077-1024
708-966-3433


Independent Living          National Council on Independent
Living
Troy Atrium
4th Street and Broadway
Troy, NY  12180
518-274-1979


Client Assistance Programs     National Association of Protection

and Advocacy Systems (NAPAS)
900 Second Street, N.E., Suite 211
Washington, D.C.  20002
202-408-9514


Prosthetics-Orthotics National Orthotic and Prosthetic
Association
1650 King Street, Suite 500
Alexandria, VA  22314
703-836-7114


Therapeutic Recreation           National Council for Therapeutic

Recreation Certification (NCTRC)
49 South Main Street, Suite 001
Spring Valley, NY  10977
914-356-9660
                       RSA Regional Offices



REGION I


    Connecticut
    Maine
    Massachusetts
    New Hampshire
    Rhode Island
    Vermont
RSA Regional Commissioner               (617) 223-4085
Dept. of Education, OSERS                    TDD: (617) 223-4097
J.W. McCormack Post Office
and Court House, Rm. 232
Boston, MA  02109
REGION II


    New Jersey
    New York
    Puerto Rico
    Virgin Island
RSA Regional Commissioner         (212) 264-4015
Dept. of Education, OSERS                    TDD: (212) 264-4016
26 Federal Plaza, Room 1239
New York, New York  10278
REGION III


    Delaware
    District of
     Columbia
    Maryland
    Pennsylvania
    Virginia
    West Virginia
RSA Regional Commissioner         (215) 596-0317
Dept. of Education, OSERS                    TDD: (215) 596-0269
3535 Market St., Rm 16120
Philadelphia, PA  19104
REGION IV

    Alabama
    Florida
    Georgia
    Kentucky
    Mississippi
    N. Carolina
    S. Carolina
    Tennessee
RSA Regional Commissioner             (404) 331-2352
Dept. of Education, OSERS                    TDD: (404) 331-0530
101 Marietta St., N.W.,
Suite 2210, P.O. Box 1691
Atlanta, GA  30301
REGION V

    Illinois
    Indiana
    Michigan
    Minnesota
    Ohio
    Wisconsin
RSA Regional Commissioner             (312) 886-5360
Dept. of Education, OSERS                    TDD: (312) 353-9694
410 South State St., Suite 700E
Chicago, IL  60605-1202
REGION VI


    Arkansas
    Louisiana
    New Mexico
    Oklahoma
    Texas
RSA Regional Commissioner                 (214) 767-2961
Dept. of Education, OSERS                    TDD: (214) 729-2961
1200 Main Tower Bldg., Rm. 2140
Dallas, TX  75202
REGION VII


    Iowa
    Kansas
    Missouri
    Nebraska
                   RSA Regional Commissioner   (816) 891-8015
Dept. of Education, OSERS                    TDD: (816) 374-6917
10220 N. Executive Hills Blvd.
Kansas City, MO  64153-1367
REGION VIII


    Colorado
    Montana
    N. Dakota
    S. Dakota
    Utah
    Wyoming
RSA Regional Commissioner               (303) 844-2135
Dept. of Education, OSERS                    TDD: (303) 844-2890
Federal Office Bldg. Suite 310
1244 Speer Boulevard
Denver, CO  80204-3582
REGION IX


    American
     Samoa
    Arizona
    California
    CNMI
    Guam
    Hawaii
    Nevada
    Palau
RSA Regional Commissioner                 (415) 556-7333
Dept. of Education, OSERS                    TDD: (415) 556-3634
Federal Office Bldg., Room 215
50 United Nations Plaza
San Francisco, CA  94102
REGION X


    Alaska
    Idaho
    Oregon
    Washington
RSA Regional Commissioner            (206) 553-5331
Dept. of Education, OSERS                    TDD: (206) 399-6434
915 Second Avenue, Room 3390
Seattle, WA  98174-1099


The Regional Rehabilitation Continuing Education Program (RRCEP),
University of Arkansas, is supported, in part, through funding
from the Rehabilitation Services Administration (RSA) Training
Program.
       Region VI Rehabilitation Continuing Education Program
                  Post Office Box 1358, Bldg #35
                   Hot Springs, Arkansas  71902
                      (501) 624-4411 ext. 315
                       (501) 624-6250 (fax)


All programs administered by and services provided by the
Regional Rehabilitation Continuing Education Program are rendered
on a non-discriminatory basis without regard to handicap, race,
creed, color, sex, or national origin in compliance with
Rehabilitation Act of 1973 and Title VI of the Civil Rights Act
of 1964.  All applicants for program participation have a right
to file complaints and to appeal according to regulations
governing this principle.

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End of Document


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